Artikeldatenbank
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Leskela, Matti V.; Peltonen, Simo; Obiala, Renata  Composite action in shallow floor beams with different shear connections  Steel Construction  2/2015  9095  Articles 
KurzfassungShallow floor beams, abbreviated to SF beams and also known as slim floor beams, are beams where most of the beam member is embedded in the concrete decking of the floor, which is supported on the lower flange or outward ledge of the beam. SF beams are composite members in which composite action can be utilized in both the serviceability and ultimate limit state conditions or only at the serviceability limit state, depending on the decking type. This paper discusses the composite action in SF beams when the decking is of a solid type, i.e. consists of a reinforced concrete slab or composite slab with profiled sheeting, making it possible to benefit from the composite behaviour at all important limit states. Hollowcore decking supported on SF beams is a special case in which the composite action can only be employed in the design for serviceability conditions. Another paper covers the special issues regarding the design of such shallow floors. x


Hauf, Gunter; Kuhlmann, Ulrike  Deformation calculation methods for slim floors  Steel Construction  2/2015  96101  Articles 
KurzfassungSlimfloor structures combine the advantages of prefabricated slab elements with steelframe construction and lead to economic building solutions fulfilling the demands of modern architecture in combination with transparent structural envelopes without intervening columns as well as implicit flexibility for sustainable construction. Over past years, new slimfloor solutions have been developed to broaden the market for composite structures when compared with conventional concrete flat slabs. However, due to the shallow depth of composite slimfloor girders, their structural response, especially their deflection behaviour, differs from normal composite girders. The concrete is already in the cracked condition under service loads in regions of sagging bending moments. The contribution of the concrete chord to the effective moment of inertia Ii,0 of the composite crosssection and the bending moment Mc in the concrete chord are not negligible for the total loadbearing capacity of the composite section. These two effects are not normally considered when calculating the deflections of composite girders based on the effective width given in codes such as EN 199411 [1]. Therefore, the following paper will show different methods for calculating the deflection of these shallow types of composite girder. x


Romero, Manuel L.; Cajot, LouisGuy; Conan, Yves; Braun, Matthias  Fire design methods for slimfloor structures  Steel Construction  2/2015  102109  Articles 
KurzfassungSlimfloor beams are wellknown, sustainable and economical solutions for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. However, despite their widespread use, Eurocode 4 contains no specific simplified calculation methods for the fire resistance of integrated and shallow floor beams. There is a clear need for an improved understanding of the performance of structures in fire plus clear and costeffective design guidance. This paper presents a set of simplified rules for determining thermal fields in the lower flange, web, rebars and slab of slim or integrated floor beams. This calculation methodology is based on existing formulas taken from different parts of Eurocode 4 except for the temperature calculation in the lower flange, which is deduced from a parametrical study using the SAFIR software. x


New technology paves the way for greener steel  Steel Construction  2/2015  109  News  
Hicks, Stephen; Peltonen, Simo  Design of slimfloor construction for humaninduced vibrations  Steel Construction  2/2015  110117  Articles 
KurzfassungThis paper presents a simplified design method for evaluating the vibration response of composite floors with slimfloor beams. The methodology is amenable to hand calculations and is appropriate for floors with regularly spaced grids and vibrations that are occasioned by walking activities. From in situ tests that have been undertaken on six floors, it is shown that slimfloor construction can easily satisfy the demanding ISO 10137 response limits for operating theatres and laboratories together with limits recommended by industry for car parks and shopping malls. Comparisons with measurements show that the simplified method presented here provides conservative predictions, and may therefore be used with confidence in design. x


Leskela, Matti V.; Peltonen, Simo  Effect of unzipping connection behaviour on the composite interaction of shallow floor beams  Steel Construction  2/2015  118121  Articles 
KurzfassungUnzipping connection behaviour is not referred to in EN 199411  only ductile and nonductile shear connections are classified. It might be clear that unzipping connections belong to the nonductile ones, but not all the nonductile connections are unzipping ones. Characteristic of unzipping connection behaviour is that, initially, connection stiffness is high and composite action is efficient. However, as the load increases, so the connection loses its shear stiffness very rapidly, and after the onset of plastic behaviour in the beam, the decking no longer contributes to the bending resistance of the initially composite member. This behaviour is most typically seen in shallow floor beams (abbreviated to SF beams) supporting hollowcore decking. This is a companion paper to the one in which the composite action in SF beams with ductile shear connections is discussed. x


Kuhlmann, Ulrike; Just, Adrian; Leitz, Bernadette; Grabe, JÃ¼rgen; SchallÃ¼ck, Christoph  Simplified criteria and economic design for king piles in combined steel pile walls according to Eurocode 3, part 11  Steel Construction  2/2015  122132  Articles 
KurzfassungThe steady growth in world trade leads to a demand for more port and harbour facilities. One of the most common forms of construction for deepwater harbour quays is the combined steel pile wall. It consists of up to 45 m long Hsection king piles plus Zsection intermediate sheet pile infill elements. The intermediate elements and the quay both transfer all forces to the king piles, which as a result are loaded with (bi)axial bending and axial force, so their stability must be checked. Up to now the effect of the soil surrounding the piles was used just in terms of best practice  buckling about the weak axis and lateral torsional buckling were neglected completely. Considering these stability phenomena in design without taking the soil into account would lead to a very conservative approach. As verification of lateral torsional buckling according to EN 199311 (EC311) becomes relevant when the embedment is neglected, a more refined analysis has been developed. x


Eleventh edition of the Edoardo Benvenuto Prize  Steel Construction  2/2015  132  News  
Helbig, Thorsten; Kamp, Florian; Oppe, Matthias  An Eye to the Sky  Inclined grid shell dome of 90 m in Astana, Kazakhstan  Steel Construction  2/2015  133138  Report 
KurzfassungA 6500 m² glazed grid shell dome covers the Nazarbayev Centre in Astana, Kazakhstan. Located near the Presidential Palace, this futuristic building, designed by Foster Partners in London, is one of a whole series of prominent architectural buildings in Astana. x


News: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  138  News  
KurzfassungThe DVS EXPO will focus on robotics and virtual welding trainers x


ECCS News: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  139142  ECCS News  
Stadsbrug Nijmegen: a beauty with waves and curves  Steel Construction  2/2015  142143  News  
Schlaich, JÃ¶rg  Hyperbolic structures. Shukhov's Lattice Towers  Forerunners of Modern Lightweight Construction. From Beckh, M.  Steel Construction  2/2015  143144  Book review 
Announcement: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  144  Announcement  
Contents: Structural Concrete 2/2015  Structural Concrete  2/2015  Contents  
Andrade, Carmen  Modelling the concretereal environment interaction to predict service life  Structural Concrete  2/2015  159160  Editorial 
Kromoser, Benjamin; Kollegger, Johann  Pneumatic forming of hardened concrete  building shells in the 21st century  Structural Concrete  2/2015  161171  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungDoublecurvature shells, used as supporting structures, are strong and save materials. Major parts of the applied loads can be carried by normal forces. Thus, the stresses are distributed very uniformly and efficiently over the entire crosssection, and long spans can be built with small thicknesses. The state of the art in the construction of shell structures is characterized by a high labour input for formwork and falsework. A new construction method without formwork and falsework has been invented at the Institute for Structural Engineering at Vienna University of Technology. The idea of this new construction method is to build concrete shells with a double curvature originating from an initially plane plate. During the transformation process, the hardened concrete plate is lifted and the elements are bent with the aid of pneumatic formwork until the required curvature is reached. Nonlinear finite element calculations, tension tests, bending tests and bonding tests were carried out in order to determine a suitable combination of concrete and reinforcement. The second part of the paper describes a largescale experiment for the erection of a 17.6 × 10.8 m, 2.9 m high freeform shell. Finally, different applications for the new method are explained. x


Galmarini, Andreas; Locher, Daniel; Marti, Peter  Predicting the responses of reinforced concrete slab strips subjected to axial tension and transverse load  a competition  Structural Concrete  2/2015  172183  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungSix largescale tests on reinforced concrete slab strips were carried out at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, in order to investigate the loadbearing behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to axial tension and transverse load. Four of these tests were used for an international competition to predict the responses of the test specimens. The specimens differed in the axial tension applied and the presence of stirrups. x


Kassem, Wael  Shear strength of deep beams: a mathematical model and design formula  Structural Concrete  2/2015  184194  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThis paper presents a proposal for estimating the shear capacity of reinforced concrete deep beams. The proposed model is based on the fixedangle softened truss model and utilizes a newly proposed formula for the effective transverse compressive stress acting on the beam web. The proposed formula is developed using a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the reported shear capacity values of 445 experimental deep beams. The validity of the mathematical model is examined by comparing its response with the experimental results as well as the predictions of other formulas available in the literature, and it results in the one best fitting the measured shear strengths. The mathematical model leads to an explicit single closedform expression for computing the shear strength of deep beams. The proposed expression is dimensionless and contains four variables that express the horizontal and vertical reinforcement ratios, the concrete strength and the shear spantodepth ratio. On the basis of the results of this paper, a design formula is proposed with predictions that are more consistent and also more reliable than those of the ACI Code and the Eurocode. x


Classen, Martin; Herbrand, Martin  Shear behaviour of composite dowels in transversely cracked concrete  Structural Concrete  2/2015  195206  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungIn steelconcrete composite girders, innovative composite dowels can be used to transfer the shear forces between the concrete slab and the steel section. Today, composite dowels are predominately used in engineering structures such as prefabricated composite bridges. However, due to their ease of manufacture, good loadbearing and deformation properties and suitability for slender concrete slabs, these composite dowels are being used more than ever in building construction as well. The present article describes shear tests on puzzleshaped composite dowels for slender concrete slabs with a depth of only 10 cm. Aside from different reinforcement configurations, the influence of different longitudinal stress states and transverse cracking in the concrete slab have been investigated. In previous studies of the shear force capacity of composite dowels, the influence of transverse cracking has been neglected. However, our own experiments described in this paper show that the shear capacity of composite dowels is significantly affected by concrete cracking. In order to simulate the experiments performed and to analyse the shear behaviour of the composite dowels in cracked and uncracked concrete, a threedimensional, nonlinear finite element model of the shear tests was set up. The results of both the experimental and numerical investigations are summarized in this paper. x


FernÃ¡ndezMontes, David; GonzÃ¡lez Valle, Enrique; DÃaz Heredia, Elena  Influence of axial tension on the shear strength of floor joists without transverse reinforcement  Structural Concrete  2/2015  207220  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe mechanism governing shear strength in reinforced concrete members without transverse reinforcement subjected to both bending and tensile stress is complex. Further, formulas used to estimate shear failure are inconsistent with each other and do not fit well with experimental findings. This article highlights the differences between the results of experimental tests and the shear strength values estimated with the equations of ACI 31811, Eurocode 2 (EC2) and modified compression field theory (MCFT). The tests considered are the ones reported in the literature consulted and the tests carried out for this experimental investigation, some with highperformance concrete. The review also puts forward a proposal for improving the method and fitting procedure when estimating the shear failure in a longitudinal reinforced concrete member without transverse reinforcement due to an excessive principal tensile stress in its web. x


Schlicke, Dirk; Tue, Nguyen Viet  Minimum reinforcement for crack width control in restrained concrete members considering the deformation compatibility  Structural Concrete  2/2015  221232  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe current design code EC2 [1] regulates the minimum reinforcement for crack width control in restrained concrete members by taking up the cracking force of the cross section. Although this concept gives straightforward results, its consistent application can lead to high reinforcement amounts with increasing member thickness. The reason is the simplifying assumption of an infinite member length neglecting the deformation compatibility. x


Costa, Ricardo Joel Teixeira; ProvidÃªncia, Paulo; Dias, Alfredo  Considering the size and strength of beamcolumn joints in the design of RC frames  Structural Concrete  2/2015  233248  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungSome experimental research studies have reported that longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns exhibits larger strains inside the joint than at the joint periphery (defined as the intersection of the outer surfaces of beam and column). This may explain why several technical specifications and stateoftheart programs recommend basing the design of beams and columns on internal force values larger than those at the joint periphery. These results and procedures are questionable and are investigated in this paper. The nonlinear finite element analysis presented here for reinforced concrete frames under gravity and quasistatic monotonic lateral loads examines (i) the stress fields in reinforcement inside interior, exterior and roof exterior joints, and (ii) the loadcarrying capacity of representative subframe models incorporating such joints. The results prove that it is actually safe, with respect to the joint load capacity, to base the design of longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns on the internal force values at the joint periphery. This result also contributes to the recommendation to use realsize beamcolumn joint models in the analysis procedure. x


Xiao, Jianzhuang; Sun, Chang; Jiang, Xinghan  Flexural behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete graded slabs  Structural Concrete  2/2015  249261  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThis paper proposes a new concept for “recycled aggregate concrete graded slabs”, which can be achieved through graded distribution for the mechanical properties of the recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). In this study, one fourpoint bending test was used to investigate six RAC graded slabs and three homogeneous slabs with RAC. The major parameters considered were the layers with different recycled coarse aggregates (RCAs) replacement percentages (0, 50 and 100%), the grading pattern (different casting methods) and the reinforcement ratio. It has been concluded that RAC graded slabs have similar flexural behaviour to that of homogeneous slabs with RAC. The reinforcement ratio, the layers with different RCA replacement percentages and the grading pattern can influence the flexural behaviour of RAC graded slabs. Furthermore, the effects of the three factors on both the flexural capacity and the deflection of the RAC graded slabs were studied with finite element method (FEM) simulation using ABAQUS software. Both the experiments and the FEM analysis indicate that the flexural behaviour of RAC slabs can be improved by using this suitable grading method. x


Colombo, Matteo; Martinelli, Paolo; di Prisco, Marco  A design approach for tunnels exposed to blast and fire  Structural Concrete  2/2015  262272  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungA design procedure based on a simplified FE model for underground tunnels subjected to internal explosion and possibly preceded by fire accidents is proposed in this article. The procedure can provide a valuable tool for designers who have to check the structural safety of a tunnel for the case of an internal blast event. The tunnel geometry considered is the same adopted for the metro line in Brescia, Italy. It has an internal diameter of about 8.15 m, is about 13.7 km long and is located about 23.1 m below the surface. Six segments and a smaller key segment (6+1) make up the tunnel. The ring has an average width of about 1.5 m. The FE model is first tested under static serviceability loads. Dynamic analyses are carried out in order to reproduce the blast scenario. The aim of this work is to generate pressureimpulse (pi) diagrams for underground tunnels for the case of internal explosion and preexplosion fire actions. An ultimate limit state criterion based on the eccentric ultimate flexural capacity and capable of including fireblast interaction is introduced. An innovative layered precast tunnel segment solution made of different fibrereinforced cementitious composites is compared with a traditional solution with the lining section made of reinforced concrete. The potential applications of this new solution are also discussed in the paper. x
