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Göppert, Knut; Haspel, Lorenz; Waldner, Dany Mobile pavilions for the fairground of the BASELWORLD - The world's leading watch and jewellery show BASELWORLD has been given a new look Steel Construction 2/2014 154-157 Reports

Kurzfassung

Most stands at last year’s BASELWORLD as well as the fairground have been fundamentally redesigned: Six crystalline pavilions that house food service, media relations and ticket office string through a mosaic of blooming flower beds. Together with the architectural practice dany waldner AG, schlaich bergermann und partner developed a modular system for mobile buildings that feature a quick and easy installation for versatile use while meeting high design requirements. Functional but elegant detailing was required starting with wide span customized multi-functional aluminium girders carrying the roof membranes, incorporating invisible stressing devices for the membrane, attachments of secondary girders, facade columns and facade panels as well as electrical power supply for the integrated illumination. Laminates of glass panes and varying metallised textiles were used to clad the facade panels made of light weight aluminium frames and connected with integrated connection devices. The structure is resting on legs adjustable in height and adaptable to varying inclination of the ground, requiring a series of movable parts to be designed for multi use, long term performance and corrosion resistance free of lubrication. Combining the advantages of stainless steel, bronze, aluminium and black steel in the strict content of requirements made the project a challenge somewhere between civil and mechanical engineering.

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People: Steel Construction 2/2014 Steel Construction 2/2014 157-159 People

Kurzfassung

Darko Beg (1954-2014)
Ram Puthli 70 years

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ECCS News: Steel Construction 2/2014 Steel Construction 2/2014 159-162 ECCS News

Kurzfassung

Events
Announcements
Technical Committees (TC) activities
Ongoing R 
Publications

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Theory of Structures - Fundamentals, Framed Structures, Plates and Shells. From P. Marti Steel Construction 2/2014 162-163 Book review

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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"A great time for young engineers" Steel Construction 2/2014 164-166 Interview

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Announcement: Steel Construction 2/2014 Steel Construction 2/2014 166 Announcement

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Contents: Structural Concrete 2/2014 Structural Concrete 2/2014 Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Bergmeister, Konrad The service life of any structure is due to the genius of the engineer who designs it - and should not be at the expense of the engineer maintaining it. Structural Concrete 2/2014 115-116 Editorial

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Krokstrand, Ole H.; Ramstad, Reiulf; Hölmebakk, Carl-Viggo Splendid concrete architecture in National Tourist Routes in Norway Structural Concrete 2/2014 117-125 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration started a programme named “National Tourist Routes in Norway” in 1994. Today it includes 18 selected routes from south to north. The uniqueness of these attractions lies in the spectacular architecture found at the viewpoints, places of interest and visitor centres located amid magnificent scenery.
The aim of the tourist routes was to strengthen Norway's position in the marketing of international tourism and to help promote local business.
The routes are carefully selected and allow tourists to enjoy some of the most spectacular scenery in the country. Young Norwegian sculptors and architects, and a few renowned ones from abroad too, were invited to take up the challenge of creating unique viewing platforms, service buildings, footbridges, ramps, benches and stairs to be placed along the different routes. All are so unique that tourists automatically stop as they drive along, not just to admire the scenery, but also the special objects.
Several of these objects are in concrete, and four are presented below. (Map references for the individual projects are listed for easy searching on Google Earth)

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Breitenbücher, Rolf; Meschke, Günther; Song, Fanbing; Zhan, Yijian Experimental, analytical and numerical analysis of the pullout behaviour of steel fibres considering different fibre types, inclinations and concrete strengths Structural Concrete 2/2014 126-135 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The pullout behaviour of single steel fibres embedded in a concrete matrix is investigated for various configurations of fibre types and embedment lengths and angles by means of laboratory tests and analytical models. Laboratory tests for fibre pullout are performed to investigate the fibre-matrix bond mechanisms. Parameters influencing the fibre pullout response, such as fibre shape, fibre tensile strength, concrete strength and fibre inclination angle are systematically studied. The effects of these parameters on the pullout force versus displacement relationship, fibre efficiency and fibre/matrix failure response are analysed based on the experimental results. For the analytical modelling of the fibre pullout behaviour of straight fibres, an interface law is proposed for the frictional behaviour between fibre and matrix. In the case of inclined fibres, the plastic deformation of the fibre and the local damage to the concrete are also considered. For hooked-end fibres, the anchorage effect due to the hook is analysed. Combining these sub-models allows the pullout response of single fibres embedded in a concrete matrix to be predicted. In addition, numerical simulations of pullout tests are performed to obtain insights into the local fibre-concrete interactions and to provide supporting information for the analytical modelling. The models are successfully validated with the experimental results.

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Groli, Giancarlo; Pérez Caldentey, Alejandro; Soto, Alejandro Giraldo Cracking performance of SCC reinforced with recycled fibres - an experimental study Structural Concrete 2/2014 136-153 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper presents an experimental campaign aiming to assess the cracking behaviour of flexural members made with self-compacting concrete (SCC) and reinforced with both rebars and steel fibres recycled from end-of-life tyres (ELT). The characteristics, constructability and performance of this new type of fibre are first discussed. The results of the tests carried out are then presented and discussed. The parameters that have been investigated are: &phgr;/&rgr;s,ef, concrete cover and fibre content. The results obtained show improvement in cracking behaviour, especially for low reinforcement ratios and large covers. Results are compared with the predictions of the recently published fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the efficiency of a new type of fibre technology for crack width control of RC elements, with advantages in sustainability from the point of view of recycling and durability.

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Prince, M. John Robert; Singh, Bhupinder Investigation of bond behaviour between recycled aggregate concrete and deformed steel bars Structural Concrete 2/2014 154-168 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The results of 45 pullout tests on 8, 10 and 12 mm diameter deformed steel bars concentrically embedded in recycled aggregate concrete designed using equivalent mix proportions with coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) replacement levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % are described here. Although consistent results were not obtained for the 8 mm bars, the normalized bond strengths of the 10 and 12 mm bars across all RCA replacement levels were higher for the RCA concretes compared with the natural coarse aggregate concrete, and they increased with RCA replacement levels. Brittleness index, an analogous parameter from rock mechanics, has been shown to be a relevant predictor of the measured bond strengths. An empirical bond stress-slip relationship has been proposed and it has been conservatively suggested that anchorage lengths for the 10 and 12 mm deformed bars in recycled aggregate concrete may be taken to be the same as those in natural aggregate concrete.

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Fan, Yuhui; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Tam, Vivian W. Y. Effect of old attached mortar on the creep of recycled aggregate concrete Structural Concrete 2/2014 169-178 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper first presents an experimental study on the shrinkage and creep behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with different recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement percentages (i.e. 0 %, 33 %, 66 %, 100 %). The experimental results reveal that increasing the RCA replacement percentage can increase the shrinkage and creep of RAC. A numerical method for creep behaviour with old adhering mortar is also proposed by analysing the influence mechanism of creep and the volume content of old adhering mortar on the creep of RAC. It is found that the RAC creep is significantly influenced by old adhering mortar properties and its volume content. Finally, a numerical model of RAC creep is established by considering the influence of mechanical properties and the creep behaviour of old adhering mortar. It is proved that this model can calculate the creep of RAC.

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Liu, Xian; Yuan, Yong; Su, Quanke Sensitivity analysis of the early-age cracking risk in an immersed tunnel Structural Concrete 2/2014 179-190 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Engineers know only too well that early-age cracking accounts for the decrease of long-term serviceability for a majority of infrastructure. In immersed tunnels, early-age cracks may leave paths for aggressive media, which lead to deterioration and thus compromise durability. On the other hand, the cracking risk in concrete structures depends on a number of factors, such as material properties, construction methods, curing measures, etc., which make decisions complex.
This work presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of early-age behaviour for an immersed tunnel cast in situ. Numerical modelling and local sensitivity methods are employed to evaluate the sensitivity of early-age cracking to casting temperature, formwork conductivity, formwork removal time, curing temperature and ambient temperature. The numerical results indicate that the casting and curing temperatures appear to be the most dominant factors with regard to the whole fabrication period.
This study provides a realistic method for determining the uncertainty analysis of concrete structures at an early age, and identifies the most important factors during the fabrication of immersed tunnel segments, which is beneficial for further decisions related to the control of early-age cracking.

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Yuan, Yong; Chi, Yang Water permeability of concrete under uniaxial tension Structural Concrete 2/2014 191-201 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Concrete structures can suffer from water permeating under stresses. This paper investigates the surface water permeability of reinforced concrete elements subjected to uniaxial tension. A testing system was developed to combine a conventional loading machine with a surface permeameter. To eliminate the effect of initial absorption of water, calibration tests were conducted on plain concrete samples with different surface saturated states. The experiment presented is designed to test the surface water permeability of a structural member under uniaxial tension. Specimens were reinforced centrally with different sizes of steel bar and fabricated with normal-strength and high-strength concrete. A uniaxial tensile load was applied from 0.10 to 0.80 of estimated ultimate cracking load in 0.10 increments. At the same time, water permeability was measured at each load step. Test results give the relationship between water permeability of concrete member and tensile load levels.

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Yan, Dongming; Xu, Shilang; Chen, Genda; Li, Hedong Biaxial behaviour of plain concrete subjected to dynamic compression with constant lateral stress Structural Concrete 2/2014 202-209 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This study investigates the dynamic biaxial behaviour of concrete by testing more than 60 cubic specimens on a custom-designed, servo-hydraulic-controlled machine. Each specimen was axially loaded in compression at a constant strain rate of 10-5, 10-4, 10-3 or 10-2 s-1 while two opposite side faces were subjected to a constant confining pressure and the other two side faces were free. The confining pressure applied to each specimen was 0, 30.5, 61.0 or 91.5 % of its uniaxial compressive strength. Test results indicate that the biaxial strength of concrete increases with strain rate at a reduced slope as confining pressure increases. The failure mode of the concrete specimens was basically unaffected by the strain rate. An empirical relation for the ultimate strength of concrete in a biaxial stress state was developed taking into account the effects of both confinement and strain rate.

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Vicente, Miguel A.; González, Dorys C.; Mínguez, Jesús; Martínez, José A. Residual modulus of elasticity and maximum compressive strain in HSC and FRHSC after high-stress-level cyclic loading Structural Concrete 2/2014 210-218 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper discusses the residual modulus of elasticity of and maximum compressive strain in high-strength concrete (HSC) and fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete (FRHSC) after being subjected to axial high-stress-level cyclic loading. The paper presents a specific procedure for evaluating the residual values of these mechanical parameters of concrete specimens.
This procedure reveals that there is no monotonic decrease in the residual modulus of elasticity with number of cycles; an initial decrease occurs in all cases, followed by an increase and, finally, another decrease. Similarly, there is no monotonic increase in the residual maximum compressive strain.
The results show substantial changes in both the residual modulus of elasticity of and the residual maximum compressive strain in concrete depending on the number of cycles. These variations are due to the combined action of two concrete phenomena: microcracking and reconsolidation of the concrete microstructure.

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Meneghetti, Leila Cristina; Garcez, Mônica Regina; da Silva Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinto; Gastal, Francisco de Paula Simões Lopes; Bittencourt, Túlio Nogueira Fatigue life of RC beams strengthened with FRP systems Structural Concrete 2/2014 219-228 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in the form of externally bonded reinforcement have been used successfully in the rehabilitation of concrete structures. Although considerable data has been produced on the performance of strengthened RC structures, the reliability of strengthened structures can be significantly reduced due to the variability in the FRP properties, especially when the wet layup technique is used. In addition to this, structural engineers are concerned about the durability of FRP-strengthened structures under extreme loading conditions. Nonetheless, knowledge of the behaviour of strengthened elements under fatigue loading may be important to raise confidence in the strengthening systems. This paper presents the results of an experimental programme developed to investigate the behaviour up to failure of RC beams strengthened with high-performance carbon and aramid fibre sheets and subjected to static and cyclic loadings in terms of ultimate loads, deflections, cracking behaviour, failure modes and fatigue life by means of loading, crack width and deflection monitoring. Experimental data on fatigue life were used to validate analytical models developed for strengthened and unstrengthened beams.

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Ozden, Sevket; Atalay, Hilal M.; Akpinar, Erkan; Erdogan, Hakan; Vula , Y?lmaz Zafer Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-beams with fully or partially bonded fibre-reinforced polymer composites Structural Concrete 2/2014 229-239 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

A series of 10 reinforced concrete T-beams, designed deficient in shear, were tested in order to investigate the shear performance achieved through externally applied U-shaped FRP composite strips. Key variables of the study were: type of FRP composite, type of surface bonding and type of end anchorage for the strips. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) and high modulus of elasticity carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (Hi-CFRP) strips were the special composite types with different elastic moduli, full or partial bonding of the strips to the beam surface were the variables for the type of surface bonding. All partially bonded FRP strips were free from surface bonding, whereas epoxy-bonded FRP anchors were used at their ends close to the slab-to-beam connection. Those strips with full surface bonding have either epoxy-bonded FRP anchors at their ends or the strip ends were without anchorage. The test results revealed that shear-deficient beams may well be strengthened by the externally applied FRP strips. However, the level of strength enhancement and the failure pattern is closely influenced by the composite's elastic modulus, the type of surface bonding and the type of end anchorage for the FRP strip itself. The enhancement of the Hi-CFRP strips did not live up to expectations. The use of unbonded FRP for shear strengthening yielded promising results.

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Alani, Amir M.; Aboutalebi, Morteza; Kilic, Gokhan Use of non-contact sensors (IBIS-S) and finite element methods in the assessment of bridge deck structures Structural Concrete 2/2014 240-247 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The main objective of this investigation is to provide an alternative method for the damage detection and assessment of bridge structures based on comparisons between finite element (FE) modelling/analysis and field data. The field data reported in this paper refers to the use of a non-destructive structural testing method (IBIS-S sensor system - displacement/movement-detection sensors with interferometric capabilities) and visual inspections. The FE models developed and presented in this study demonstrate certain degrees of reliability in terms of predicting the mechanical behaviour of the bridge structure under investigation. The FE models were developed using the ANSYS software package. This investigation also provides a detailed report on the application of the field survey that was carried out on a rather heavily used bridge located in Chatham, Kent, UK. The field data concerning the IBIS-S sensors correspond to subjecting the bridge to different static and dynamic loading conditions. The static and dynamic structural responses of the bridge were created by driving a lorry up and down the bridge. The same loading conditions were then simulated using the FE model developed to verify the sensitivity of the model. This FE model was then used to study the response of the bridge to other loading conditions. It is believed that the proposed method could potentially be used for assessing bridge structures within the context of the health monitoring of structures.

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Podrou ek, Jan; Strauss, Alfred; Bergmeister, Konrad Robustness-based performance assessment of a prestressed concrete bridge Structural Concrete 2/2014 248-257 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Life-cycle civil engineering addresses, among other things, the growing number of deteriorating bridges and the associated economic challenges. As a consequence, government bodies, infrastructure and bridge owners as well as industry request objective and rational performance indicators for classification and intervention planning in structural engineering. This paper focuses on a methodology for analysing the damage-based robustness margins of bridge systems under traffic loading. In particular, a series of emergent deterioration-based damage scenarios are compared with the actual or virgin state in terms of loadbearing capacity and serviceability. Non-linear finite element analysis based on a detailed 3D model has a high potential for capturing the available bridge capacity for different degradation phenomena and levels, serving as an input for further reliability-based performance indicators. Notwithstanding, costs associated with fully probabilistic assessment measures are still prohibitive despite technological advances and new methods of reducing the sample size in Monte Carlo computations. In addition, considering the large uncertainties and imprecision involved, it is imperative that probabilistic schemes are preferred over deterministic assessments.
The objective of this article is to present strategies for robustness-based performance assessment using non-linear modelling and to discuss relevant reliability-based quantities and performance indicators in relation to structural damage using the example of specific degradation events in an existing prestressed box girder bridge. Furthermore, some strategies are developed on the basis of the new approach for general complex engineering structures.

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Cervenka, Vladimir; Ganz, Hans Rudolf Validation of post-tensioning anchorage zones by laboratory testing and numerical simulation Structural Concrete 2/2014 258-268 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Anchorage zones in post-tensioned concrete structures offered by the construction industry are subject to a certification process, which checks compliance with codes of practice and safety requirements. This certification is based on load transfer tests on specimens, which represent the real structural solutions. Such tests can be supplemented by numerical simulations based on computational mechanics. Those simulations represent a powerful tool for interpreting test results and contribute to a better understanding of the structural behaviour of anchorage zones.

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Correction to: Non-linear analysis of statically indeterminate SFRC columns. Structural Concrete Structural Concrete 2/2014 268 Erratum

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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fib-news: Structural Concrete 2/2014 Structural Concrete 2/2014 269-275 fib-news

Kurzfassung

New structure of fib's Commissions and Task Groups; International Workshop on Concrete Sustainability and K. Sakai's retirement; G. Clark and G. Balázs attend ACI Spring Convention; fib Commission 5 Durability seminar; Recent awards and honours; Jan Bobrowski †; Congresses and symposia; Acknowledgement

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Structural Concrete 3/2014 Structural Concrete 2/2014 276 Preview

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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