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Autor(en) Titel Zeitschrift Ausgabe Seite Rubrik
Termine: Stahlbau 3/2014 Stahlbau 3/2014 213-214 Termine

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Content: Steel Construction 3/2014 Steel Construction 3/2014 Content

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Mazzolani , Federico; Landolfo, Raffaele Eurosteel 2014 Steel Construction 3/2014 167 Editorial

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da Silva, Luís Simões Message from the Chairman of the Editorial Board Steel Construction 3/2014 168 Editorial

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-Qiang; Usmani, Asif Influence of fire scenarios on progressive collapse mechanisms of steel framed structures Steel Construction 3/2014 169-172 Articles

Kurzfassung

OpenSees is an open-source object-oriented software framework developed at UC Berkeley. The OpenSees framework has been recently extended to deal with structural behaviour under fire conditions. This paper presents the results of a numerical study, using OpenSees, of the progressive collapse of steel frames exposed to fire. After validating the capability of OpenSees against available analytical and experimental results of fire tests on steel members, a parametric study is carried out to find the progressive collapse mechanism of steel frames exposed to fire and corresponding influencing factors. The factors include load levels, lateral restraint, beam strength and fire scenarios. The catenary action of beams is considered by using a temperature-dependent corotational beam/column element. The results show that different progressive collapse mechanisms can happen due to the sequence of the buckling of columns. High load levels lead to the downward collapse of the whole structure compared with the lateral collapse for low load levels. The existing of lateral restraint causes the premature buckling of bottom columns which triggers the whole frame collapse. As the beam section increases, the collapse mechanism of steel frames changes from beam failure mode to column failure mode. The fire scenarios have significant effect on the collapse mode of steel frames. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary study of the progressive collapse of steel frames. Further work is underway to combine the influence of the effect of concrete floors. A simple design method is then expected to be proposed to investigate the robustness of steel structures against progressive collapse due to fire.

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Dubina, Dan; Stratan, Aurel; Vulcu, Cristian; Ciutina, Adrian High strength steel in seismic resistant building frames Steel Construction 3/2014 173-177 Articles

Kurzfassung

Seismic resistant building frames designed as dissipative structures, must allow for plastic deformations to develop in specific members, whose behaviour is expected to be predicted and controlled by proper calculation and detailing. Members designed to remain elastic during earthquake, such as columns, are characterized by high strength demands. Dual-steel structural systems, optimized according to a Performance Based Design (PBD) philosophy, in which High Strength Steel (HSS) is used in predominantly “elastic” members, while Mild Carbon Steel (MCS) is used in dissipative members, can be very reliable and cost efficient. Because present seismic design codes do not cover this specific configuration, an extensive European research project [1], HSS-SERF - High Strength Steel in Seismic Resistant Building Frames, was carried out with the aim to investigate and evaluate the seismic performance of dual-steel building frames. On this purpose, and based on a large numerical and experimental program, the following objectives have been focused into the project:
1. to find reliable structural typologies and joint/connection detailing for dual-steel building frames, (e. g. of HSS and MCS members), and to validate them by tests and advanced numerical simulations,
2. to develop design criteria and performance based design methodology for dual-steel structures using high strength steel,
3. to recommend relevant design parameters (i. e. behaviour factor q, overstrength factor Ω) to be implemented in further versions of the seismic design code, EN 1998-1 [1], in order to apply capacity design approach for dual-steel framing typologies,
4. to evaluate technical and economic benefit of dual-steel approach involving HSS.

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Ciupack, Yvonne; Pasternak, Hartmut; Schiel, Manuel; Ince, Erdeniz Adhesive bonded joints in steel structures Steel Construction 3/2014 178-182 Articles

Kurzfassung

While classic joining techniques in steel construction have undergone advancements, fundamental problems still remain. The utilisation of structural bonding can remedy the situation, but despite having many advantages, has not been able to establish itself in civil engineering and specifically steel construction. The reason for this are doubts by engineers, architects and contractors regarding the verifiability, durability and load bearing capacity of bonded steel constructions. In order to facilitate the use of the innovative joining technique in construction, it is necessary to process bonded joints close to standardisation.

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Fujita, Masanori; Sakai, Junpei; Oda, Hirotaka; Iwata, Mamoru Building system for a composite steel-timber structure Steel Construction 3/2014 183-187 Articles

Kurzfassung

In order to address global environmental issues, there is an urgent need for the building structure field to use as much timber as possible to contribute to reforestation, as well as to research and develop a building system that does not diminish the structure’s functionality and safety [1]. The building structure field is required to actively use this wood as timber, but the timber is too weak to use for large buildings. Research and development of an appropriate building system that can utilize such timber is necessary.
This study examines the possibility of developing a building system for a composite steel-timber structure utilizing the authors’ wealth of expertise in steel structure construction. Different types of composite steel-timber structure building systems are categorized, and their features are described. Furthermore, the individual types are evaluated for the performance requirements needed to develop a building system.

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Prachar, Martin; Jandera, Michal; Wald, Franti ek; Zhaob, Bin Fire resistance of slender section beams - Subjected to lateral torsional buckling Steel Construction 3/2014 188-192 Articles

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The paper shows experimental and numerical research into slender cross-section beams in case of fire. The topic is very important because little investigation has been made and little experimental data has been collected so far. In the framework of the RFCS project FIDESC4 - Fire Design of Steel Members with Welded or Hot-rolled Class 4 Cross-sections, several simple supported beams were tested at elevated temperature at the Czech Technical University in Prague.
Currently, Eurocode 3 contains a number of simple rules for design of slender Class 4 cross-sections which, based on recent numerical simulations, proved themselves to be over-conservative. Through refining these rules, material savings could be achieved, which would lead to greater competitiveness of the steel structures. This is being covered in existing research, but is not published in this paper, which is limited to lateral torsional buckling behaviour only.
Determination of the bending resistance for members subjected to lateral torsional buckling of Class 1-3 cross-sections at elevated temperature is based on the same principles as the design at room temperature, according to EC 3 part 1-1 [1]. However, it differs in using only one imperfection factor for all types of cross-sections. The informative Annex E of the standard (EC 3 part 1-2 [2]) recommends using the design formulas for slender (Class 4) sections as well. But there is a restriction of the critical temperature value and a different reduction of yield strength is used (0.2 % proof strength for Class 4 instead of 2.0 % proof strength for stockier Class 1-3 sections). For the non-uniform members (variable section height), a limited design procedure is given in EC 3 part 1-1 [1]. This is applicable for room temperature only. The possibility of using these rules for fire design is not yet confirmed.

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Kurrer, Karl-Eugen History of Virtual Work Laws. A History of Mechanics Prospective. From: D. Capecchi Steel Construction 3/2014 192 Book review

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Souza dos Santos, Eliane; de Miranda Batista, Eduardo; Camotim, Dinar Cold-formed steel columns under L-D-G interaction - Experimental investigation Steel Construction 3/2014 193-198 Articles

Kurzfassung

The paper addresses an experimental programme that is part of an ongoing investigation on the behaviour, strength and design of cold-formed steel lipped channel columns undergoing mode interaction involving local, distortional and global buckling. The 16 column specimens tested were selected to exhibit either (i) close local, distortional and critical buckling loads (PcrL ≍ PcrD ≍ PcrG) or (ii) PcrL ≍ PcrD (condition ensured via the cross-sectional dimensions) and PcrG up to around 20 % below or above that value (difference controlled via the column length). The test set-up, procedure and results are presented and discussed, and the failure load data obtained are used to explore the possibility of developing a design approach based on the direct strength method (DSM).

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Zhang, Xi; Rasmussen, Kim Tests of cold-formed steel portal frames with slender sections Steel Construction 3/2014 199-203 Articles

Kurzfassung

Cold-formed steel sections are widely used in many applications such as structural frames, scaffolding systems, purlins and storage racks. In particular, cold-formed steel portal frames can be an alternative to conventional hot-rolled steel portal frames for industrial, rural and residential low rise buildings. The advantages of using cold-formed steels include a higher strength-to-weight ratio and reduced material, erection and transportation costs.
Over the past two decades a number of researchers [1] to [3] have undertaken tests on cold-formed steel portal frames. The tests mainly focused on the behaviour of joints, and employed relatively stocky sections. Hence, they provided little insight into the effects of cross-sectional instability on the overall stability of the frame.
In this paper, three portal frame tests are described, the main purpose of which was to study the effect of cross-sectional instability on the two-dimensional sway failure of cold-formed steel. The tests demonstrated significant local and distortional buckling before reaching the ultimate load. Finite element models were calibrated against the tests. The calibrated models therefore can be used for a parametric study to investigate the significance of the additional second-order effects caused by local/distortional bucking. The paper details the tests and the numerical simulations.

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Steel frame for new extension to terminal at Oslo Airport Steel Construction 3/2014 203 News

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Jordão, Sandra; Pinho, Marco; Martin, João Pedro; Santiago, Aldina; Neves, Luís Costa Behaviour of laminated glass beams reinforced with pre-stressed cables Steel Construction 3/2014 204-207 Article

Kurzfassung

Structural glass corresponds to an innovative material with extraordinary aesthetical and architectonic potential that has undergone significant technological advances in recent years, yielding it stronger and safer. For this reason, the use of structural glass has increased considerably in the last decade and is now an unavoidable presence in most of recent reference buildings.
The structural capacity of glass elements is brought in from reinforcing techniques of different types. One of the possibilities corresponds to pre stressed cables reinforcement. This technique is very effective in terms of resistance and deformability and corresponds to a light reinforcing element rendering the so called spider web effect. In the framework of the research project “S-Glass: Structural performance and design rules of glass beams externally reinforced” [1] study the behavior of laminated glass beams reinforced by too twin external steel rods.
The work presented in the current paper is within the framework of S-Glass project aiming at characterizing the behavior of reinforced laminated glass beams in the non-crack regimen. For this purpose experimental and numerical analysis were prepared. The numerical model was used for a cable layout optimization analysis. Furthermore an analytical solution is put forward, which tackles the beam-cable load transfer indetermination. Final conclusions are established on the bases of a comparison established between experimental, numerical and analytical results.

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Kido, Ewa Maria; Cywinski, Zbigniew The new steel-glass architecture of railway stations in Japan Steel Construction 3/2014 208-214 Report

Kurzfassung

The accelerating needs of communication have led to many modern railway stations made of steel and glass being built or upgraded all over the world during the last two decades. That trend, influenced by local architectural traditions, is clearly evident in Japan, too. This paper, focusing on that trend, is a continuation of the authors’ previous publication [1].

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News: Steel Construction 3/2014 Steel Construction 3/2014 215-217 News

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De Rotterdam awarded best tall building in Europe
First structural components for Texas project have arrived
Double milestone: 150th anniversary of the Foundation Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and one year anniversary of its merger with Germanischer Lloyd (GL)
Well networked - Consense 2014 in Stuttgart with around 1,400 visitors
SUSCOS students at Politehnica University in Timis¸oara

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ECCS News: Steel Construction 3/2014 Steel Construction 3/2014 217-220 ECCS News

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TC News
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Announcement: Steel Construction 3/2014 Steel Construction 3/2014 220 Announcement

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Contents: Structural Concrete 3/2014 Structural Concrete 3/2014 Contents

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Litzner, Hans-Ulrich Tempora mutantur...... Structural Concrete 3/2014 277-278 Editorials

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Taerwe, Luc; Helland, Steinar Structural Concrete makes impact Structural Concrete 3/2014 279-280 Editorials

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Kollegger, Johann; Foremniak, Sara; Suza, Dominik; Wimmer, David; Gmainer, Susanne Building bridges using the balanced lift method Structural Concrete 3/2014 281-291 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This article explains the process of developing a new method, called the balanced lift method, for constructing bridges based on an alternative to the bridge construction techniques used nowadays. The most common methods of building bridges are those using falsework or the cantilever method, but a rather uncommon method, the lowering of arches is seen as the origin of the balanced lift method. The idea was to create a method that would allow a bridge to be built in a very fast manner without the need for falsework, using prefabricated elements and assembling all parts together in a position - in this case vertically - that would simplify the construction process. In order to reach the final state of the bridge, the parts assembled vertically are rotated into their final horizontal position. This article contains descriptions of the development of the method, a large-scale test and two bridges already designed using the balanced lift method.

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Gama, David; Almeida, João F. Concrete integral abutment bridges with reinforced concrete piles Structural Concrete 3/2014 292-304 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The use of reinforced concrete (RC) piles in integral abutment bridges (IABs) has not been widespread due to concerns over pile flexibility and the potential for concrete cracking. This is the reason why the use of steel piles is the preferred solution in the United States. However, in various countries where IABs are still seldom used, RC piles are more readily available and economical. Hence, an understanding of the behaviour of IABs with RC piles can lead to a wider implementation of integral solutions. This paper presents the results of a parametric study conducted to evaluate how both the design variables and the accuracy of the modelling approach influence the potential use of integral solutions with RC piles in prestressed concrete bridges up to 200 m long. Finite element modelling was used and four levels of approximation (LoA) were established for the analyses, ranging from simple linear-elastic to more complex non-linear models. The results show that existing concerns over concrete cracking control can be overcome if adequate options in design are used together with the adequate LoAs in structural analysis. Integral solutions with RC piles for bridges up to 200 m long can generally be adopted, although in comparisons with non-integral designs a significant additional amount of prestressing steel is to be expected. The results also include a set of charts with practical estimates to help designers in their first approach to the preliminary design of an IAB.

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Nyhus, Bente Skovseth Consistent practical design of concrete structures Structural Concrete 3/2014 305-316 Technical Papers

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The design of large concrete structures is a very complex area which requires specialized skills and specialized tools. Tools are available to design these structures efficiently. However, these design tools are based on inconsistency between what is assumed in the structural analysis and the sectional design. This inconsistency is believed to be conservative, but is such an approach always safe and cost-effective? In light of this, a design tool has been developed to eliminate this inconsistency. The program is called ShellDesign and the new method is called the “consistent stiffness method”. The method can be used in practical design and is a more efficient alternative to running non-linear analysis programs. In order to obtain a more rational and consistent design method for transverse shear, implementation of the modified compression field theory (MCFT) in ShellDesign is almost finished. The main advantages of developing ShellDesign are to increase the competitiveness of concrete structures, contribute to increased safety and also to increase operability and document robustness in existing structures.

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Belletti, Beatrice; Damoni, Cecilia; Hendriks, Max A. N.; de Boer, Ane Analytical and numerical evaluation of the design shear resistance of reinforced concrete slabs Structural Concrete 3/2014 317-330 Technical Papers

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The aim of this research is to compare the predictions of the design load-carrying capacity of slabs obtained with simplified analytical and numerical procedures which can be readily used by analysts in the current design process. The research fits into a research programme initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment for the re-examination of the load-carrying capacity of existing bridges and viaducts, and the beams and slabs they include, through the use of non-linear finite-element analyses. The behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to concentrated loads close to their supports is investigated in this contribution. Three tests from a series of 18 slabs with a total of 108 tests, tested at Delft University of Technology, were selected as case studies and analysed with non-linear finite-element analyses and analytical models either proposed by design codes or available in the literature. The research agrees well with the philosophy of the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010, which offers different analytical and numerical calculation methods for evaluating the design shear resistance of reinforced concrete members according to different levels of approximation. For the three slabs investigated in this study, it indeed pays to use higher levels of approximation. The highest level (level IV) based on non-linear finite element analysis gives the highest design load resistance, but still well below the resistance obtained experimentally.

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