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Hämäläinen, Olli-Pekka; Björk, Timo Fretting fatigue phenomenon in bolted high-strength steel plate connections Steel Construction 3/2015 174-178 Articles

Kurzfassung

Fretting fatigue is a major obstacle for bolted joints used as an alternative to welding. Several studies of the subject so far have concerned aluminium or titanium joints, but due to the recently developed high-strength steels that can be challenging to weld, the steel industry would also like to explore this field. This paper presents the experimental fatigue test results of double-lap joints in S355 and S960QC steels. The results are compared and analysed using the SWT parameter and an FE model of the test specimen. The noticeable difference in fretting fatigue behaviour of these materials will be explained and the controversial crack initiation issue addressed.

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News: Steel Construction 3/2015 Steel Construction 3/2015 178 News

Kurzfassung

Offshore Structures Course
EcoSteelPanel

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Schillo, Nicole; Feldmann, Markus Local buckling behaviour of welded box sections made of high-strength steel - Comparing experiments with EC3 and general method Steel Construction 3/2015 179-186 Articles

Kurzfassung

One aim within the RFCS-funded RUOSTE research project was to study the effects of high-strength steel properties on local buckling. The respective parameters were investigated on 34 stub column specimens. The specimens were made of S500MC, S700MC and S960MC, with a non-dimensional local slenderness varying between 0.64 and 1.55. Extensive imperfection measurements were undertaken and analysed. The specimens were then used in stub column tests to investigate the local buckling behaviour. The results were first compared with the resistance curve of the current Eurocode (EC), which was shown to be rather optimistic, especially towards the slender end of the range. Secondly, the results were compared with the general method, which uses an equivalent imperfection approach.

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"Le Bois aux Daims", Center Parc, Poitou-Charentes Steel Construction 3/2015 186 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Steige, Yvonne; Weynand, Klaus Design resistance of end plate splices with hollow sections Steel Construction 3/2015 187-193 Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper presents a design approach for calculating rectangular hollow section (RHS) splices (bolted end plate connections) under tension forces or bending moments in accordance with EN 1993-1-8. Based on models available in the literature, a Eurocode-conform model is presented using the component method. The original model, based on experimental and numerical investigations, uses a three-dimensional yield line method to predict the tension resistance of bolted splices with hollow sections considering the joint as a whole. The adapted model is fully compatible with EN 1993-1-8. Moreover, the original model has been extended to predict also the design moment resistance of such RHS splices.

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Döring, Bernd; Reger, Vitali; Kuhnhenne, Markus; Feldmann, Markus; Kesti, Jyrki; Lawson, Mark; Botti, Andrea Steel solutions for enabling zero-energy buildings Steel Construction 3/2015 194-200 Articles

Kurzfassung

The European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) obliges the member states to ensure that, by 31 December 2020, all new buildings are nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB). This paper presents solutions for steel-intensive commercial buildings that achieve this requirement. Several key components such as façades, floor systems and steel piles for ground energy storage were investigated in detail using numerous numerical simulations and practical tests of selected options. Furthermore, options for a whole building which fulfil the zero-energy building approach were identified for different European climates by performing a parametric study using a thermal building simulation tool.

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Stranghöner, Natalie; Jungbluth, Dominik Fatigue strength of marked steel components - Influence of durable marking methods on the fatigue strength of steel components Steel Construction 3/2015 201-209 Articles

Kurzfassung

According to EN 1090-2, steel components have to be identifiable and traceable throughout the whole production chain. The choice of identification method is not specified consistently in international rules and standards. In terms of durability and liability, markings should be resistant to particular fabrication processes such as sandblasting, hot-dip galvanizing or coating. The methods are hard stamping, scribing, plasma marking and needling. The effect of the notch caused by the marking process on the fatigue strength of the components has not yet been investigated in detail. As a result, a classification of the notch details in the European detail categories of EN 1993-1-9 is, in principle, impossible. For these reasons, the influence of durable marking methods on the fatigue strength of steel components needs to be clarified by experimental fatigue tests currently being performed at the Institute for Metal and Lightweight Structures, University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of this investigation involves examining the different surface conditions of hard-stamped, scribed, plasma-marked and needled specimens. The experimental investigations are being carried out considering two different steel grades, S355J2 and S460N, and three different steel plate thicknesses, 15, 25 and 40 mm.

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Kido, Ewa Maria; Cywinski, Zbigniew The new steel-glass architecture of passenger service centres on expressways in Japan Steel Construction 3/2015 210-215 Report

Kurzfassung

Nowadays, modern expressways worldwide are becoming very important arteries for the quick and safe transportation of people and goods. Service centres are located along these roads for the convenience of drivers and passengers. Those centres consist of buildings and other infrastructure elements and provide various services. Usually, buildings represent contemporary trends in architecture and structural engineering. Steel and glass are widely used. This is also the case in Japan but, simultaneously, adequate approaches are being made to respect the country’s own traditions as well. This paper is a continuation of the authors’ previous publications [1], [2], [3] devoted, respectively, to buildings, railway stations and air terminals.

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ECCS News: Steel Construction 3/2015 Steel Construction 3/2015 215-219 ECCS News

Kurzfassung

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Danube City Tower: Semi-active dampers respond to various load cases Steel Construction 3/2015 219-220 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Announcement: Steel Construction 3/2015 Steel Construction 3/2015 220 Announcement

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Contents: Structural Concrete 3/2015 Structural Concrete 3/2015 Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Caspeele, Robby; Steenbergen, Raphaël; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard Special issue of "Structural Concrete" with articles from the JCSS workshop on "Risk- and reliability-based assessment of existing structures" Structural Concrete 3/2015 313 Editorial

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Tanner, Peter; Hingorani, Ramon Acceptable risks to persons associated with building structures Structural Concrete 3/2015 314-322 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

In routine engineering practice, the risks associated with safety considerations addressed when designing new or assessing existing structures are not quantified and the corresponding acceptance criteria may diverge widely. Although the use of explicit risk analysis methods to quantify structural safety would therefore deliver significant benefits, the implementation of such methods is hindered by a series of technical and administrative obstacles.
The present study explores methods and tools for the practical application of explicit risk analysis methods. Structure-related risks to persons are established on the grounds of the probability of structural failure and its consequences in terms of loss of human life. The procedure adopted is applied to a representative set of building structures. Acceptance criteria for risks to persons associated with such structures are deduced from the findings. These criteria provide a rational basis for decision-making in structural engineering. They may be used in explicit risk analysis or as a basis for the consistent calibration of simplified models for determining partial factors in the design of new or assessment of existing structures.

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Steenbergen, Raphaël D. J. M.; Sýkora, Miroslav; Diamantidis, Dimitris; Holický, Milan; Vrouwenvelder, Ton Economic and human safety reliability levels for existing structures Structural Concrete 3/2015 323-332 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Specifying the target reliability levels is one of the key issues in the assessment of existing structures. For a majority of existing buildings and infrastructures, the design life has been reached or will be reached in the near future. These structures need to be reassessed in order to verify their safety. Eurocodes provide a general basis primarily intended for the design of new structures, but the basic principles can be used for assessing existing buildings, too. Reliability levels are generally based on both economic optimization and criteria for human safety. In this study, both methods are elaborated for existing structures. It appears that the requirement for the same target reliability for existing and new structures is uneconomical. Further, cost optimization seems to yield rather low reliability levels and human safety criteria often become the critical factor. The study concludes with practical guidelines for establishing reliability indices for existing structures linked to Eurocode principles.

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Allaix, Diego Lorenzo; Carbone, Vincenzo Ilario; Mancini, Giuseppe Modelling uncertainties for the loadbearing capacity of corroded simply supported RC beams Structural Concrete 3/2015 333-341 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The probabilistic assessment of structures damaged by corrosion calls for deterministic models of the degradation of the structural performance and probabilistic models accounting for the uncertainties in material properties, geometry and models used in the reliability analysis. This paper describes the development of a probabilistic model of the uncertainties that arise from the prediction of the loadbearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures damaged by corrosion of the reinforcement. The investigation focuses on the flexural failure of simply supported beams suffering from chloride-induced corrosion. The loss of steel cross-sectional area, the reduction in strength and ductility of the corroded bars, the loss of bond between reinforcement and concrete and the cracking of the concrete cover are taken into account in a non-linear finite element analysis. The comparison between experimental results and numerical predictions of the failure load allows the quantification of the model uncertainty according to the framework proposed by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety. A Bayesian updating methodology is proposed to account for prior knowledge and experimental results.

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Strauss, Alfred; Karimi, Saeed; Kopf, Fritz; Capraru, Catalin; Bergmeister, Konrad Monitoring-based performance assessment of rail-bridge interaction based on structural reliability Structural Concrete 3/2015 342-355 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

For today's railways, the continuous welded rail, which enhances driving dynamics and comfort for passengers, is often the construction method of choice. However, bridges and viaducts, which can be seen as singularities in the railway substructure, still pose a few unsolved problems; the bridge structure deforms under the impacts of thermal variation, creep, shrinkage, train passage and braking. The track-bridge interaction is an important parameter in railway bridge design. Measurement campaigns and research projects have been performed to investigate the interaction process and learn how to predict longitudinal forces in the rail and the concrete slab track. For the construction of long bridges on high-speed railway lines, new computational tools, monitoring systems and enhanced verification methods for tolerable rail stresses on bridges had to be developed. In order to take the modified stiffness conditions and recent findings on rail resistance into account, the verification schemes and safety concepts based on monitoring data have to be revised and performance-based methods need to be developed. The target of this article is to present monitoring- and reliability-based assessment methods for the concrete structure-rail interaction using monitoring and non-linear analysis techniques.

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Schneider, Ronald; Fischer, Johannes; Bügler, Maximilian; Nowak, Marcel; Thöns, Sebastian; Borrmann, André; Straub, Daniel Assessing and updating the reliability of concrete bridges subjected to spatial deterioration - principles and software implementation Structural Concrete 3/2015 356-365 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Inspection and maintenance of concrete bridges is a major cost factor in transportation infrastructure, and there is significant potential for using information gained during inspection to update predictive models of the performance and reliability of such structures. In this context, this paper presents an approach for assessing and updating the reliability of prestressed concrete bridges subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. The system deterioration state is determined based on a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) model that considers the spatial variability of the corrosion process. The overall system reliability is computed by means of a probabilistic structural model coupled with the deterioration model. Inspection data are included in the system reliability calculation through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. As proof of concept, a software prototype is developed to implement the method presented here. The software prototype is applied to a typical highway bridge and the influence of inspection information on the system deterioration state and the structural reliability is quantified taking into account the spatial correlation of the corrosion process. This work is a step towards developing a software tool that can be used by engineering practitioners to perform reliability assessments of ageing concrete bridges and update their reliability with inspection and monitoring data.

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Belletti, Beatrice; Pimentel, Mário; Scolari, Matteo; Walraven, Joost C. Safety assessment of punching shear failure according to the level of approximation approach Structural Concrete 3/2015 366-380 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 introduced the concept of levels of approximation (LoA) as a strategy for simplifying the procedures involved in preliminary design stages or the design of non-critical structural elements while still providing the tools for engineers to use state-of-the-art techniques in the assessment of existing structures or in the advanced stages of design for critical structural elements. In this paper, this concept is applied to the determination of the punching shear resistance of reinforced concrete slabs. A procedure is validated for the highest LoA involving non-linear finite element analysis (NLFEA) with multi-layered shell elements and the critical shear crack theory (CSCT). The safety format proposed for use in the safety verification assisted by NLFEA is based on the definition of a global resistance safety factor. A semi-probabilistic approach is followed, based on the assumption of a lognormal distribution for the resistance and on an estimate of its coefficient of variation. This approach is validated by means of a comparison with the results from a probabilistic analysis.
The LoA approach is initially applied to the study of statically determinate slabs supported on one column to verify the effectiveness of the procedure presented here compared with other validated methods available in the literature. The paper concludes with a case study illustrating the application of the proposed procedure to a bridge deck slab and highlighting the benefits of using a higher LoA.

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Rossi, Pierre; Daviau-Desnoyers, Dominic; Tailhan, Jean-Louis Analysis of cracking in steel fibre-reinforced concrete (SFRC) structures in bending using probabilistic modelling Structural Concrete 3/2015 381-388 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

An improvement to the probabilistic discrete cracking model for fibre-reinforced concretes, originally developed by Rossi, is proposed in this paper.
This new model features the following:
- Crack formation and propagation in the concrete is taken into account by using special interface elements. These elements open once the normal tensile stress at their centre of gravity reaches the tensile strength of the element. The probabilistic aspect of the cracking process is taken into account by the fact that the tensile strength is randomly distributed throughout the mesh elements.
- Immediately after the formation of cracks, the fibre bridging effect is considered by a damage model approach. The probabilistic aspect consists of randomly distributing the post-cracking energy.
The improved numerical model is used to analyse the bending behaviour of three SFRC beams made from the same material. The numerical simulations are compared with experimental results in terms of the global behaviour of and cracking processes in the beams.

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Engen, Morten; Hendriks, Max A. N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik Solution strategy for non-linear finite element analyses of large reinforced concrete structures Structural Concrete 3/2015 389-397 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

When performing non-linear finite element analyses during the design of large reinforced concrete structures, there is a need for a general, robust and stable solution strategy with a low modelling uncertainty which comprises choices regarding force equilibrium, kinematic compatibility and constitutive relations. In this paper, analyses of experiments with a range of structural forms, loading conditions, failure modes and concrete strengths show that an engineering solution strategy is able to produce results with good accuracy and low modelling uncertainty. The advice is to shift the attention from a detailed description of the post-cracking behaviour of concrete to a rational description of the pre-cracking compressive behaviour for cases where large elements are used and the ultimate limit capacity is sought.

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Keßler, Sylvia; Angst, Ueli; Zintel, Marc; Gehlen, Christoph Defects in epoxy-coated reinforcement and their impact on the service life of a concrete structure - A study of critical chloride content and macro-cell corrosion Structural Concrete 3/2015 398-405 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Epoxy-coated reinforcement (ECR) as a means of protection against chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete is used in only a few countries due to doubts concerning its effectiveness. A common misconception is that possible defects in the coating are particularly weak points as these might favour high local corrosion rates and thus loss of steel cross-section. This work discusses why a certain number of small defects can be tolerated. It is argued that prolongation of the initiation phase is caused by a higher critical chloride content compared with uncoated steel due to the “size effect”. Additionally, the propagation phase for ECR is likely to be extended due to the severely restricted cathodic area that limits the corrosion rate. This paper presents experimental and numerical tests to verify these assumptions.

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Knight, Daniel; Visintin, Phillip; Oehlers, Deric J. Displacement-based simulation of time-dependent behaviour of RC beams with prestressed FRP or steel tendons Structural Concrete 3/2015 406-417 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Predicting the time-dependent behaviour of prestressed concrete (PC) beams is crucial as time effects under serviceability loading can result in a critical loss of prestress. The conventional technique using moment-curvature (M/&khgr;) to simulate the behaviour of PC beams is based on the Euler-Bernoulli corollary of a linear strain profile in which all deformations are accommodated through changes in the material strain, i.e. it is strain based. Consequently, the M/&khgr; approach cannot directly accommodate discrete deformations associated with tension stiffening, such as the formation of individual cracks and reinforcement slip. Hence, the M/&khgr; approach can simulate the behaviour prior to cracking purely through mechanics. However, for post-cracking behaviour it requires empirically derived correction factors, such as empirically derived flexural rigidities, to allow for the deformations associated with tension stiffening. This paper presents a displacement-based moment-rotation (M/&THgr;) approach for determining the behaviour of PC beams by applying the Euler-Bernoulli theorem of plane sections, as opposed to the conventional M/&khgr; approach of a linear strain profile. Being based on plane sections, the M/&THgr; approach deals directly with displacements and, consequently, can simulate the mechanics of tension stiffening directly. The approach is shown to accommodate the time effects of concrete creep, shrinkage and reinforcement relaxation and can develop equivalent flexural rigidities directly from mechanics.

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Hagberg, Thore Do EN 1992-1-1 and the European Concrete Platform comply with tests? Commentary on the rules for strut-and-tie models using corbels as an example Structural Concrete 3/2015 418-427 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

EN 1992 [1] is currently under revision. In that context it is justified to pass a critical eye over the standard, particularly if the models and resistance functions for the ultimate limit state comply with results from tests. The present contribution is limited to S&T models. The results of the analysis will primarily have relevance to corbels; however, some conclusions are general and should be considered when choosing the mathematical model for any S&T model. Ref. [1] is not sufficiently detailed to provide a basis for the complete design of, for example, corbels. The European Concrete Platform [2], which contains worked examples, has been prepared in accordance with and to support [1].
The two topics dealt with are 1) selection of the main model, and 2) details and use of the S&T model in [1] and [2], and particularly its ability to predict results from tests. The tests for the analysis are taken from a thorough study described in [3]. To evaluate results from using [1] and [2], a concept for the design of corbels suggested earlier has been used to calculate the same tests [4].
It will be claimed that the models in [1] and [2] and their ability to predict the outcome of tests have some flaws compared with calculations according to [4]. The detailed calculations are given in annexes, i.e. Part 1 for design according to [1] and [2] and Part 2 for design according to [4]. The annexes as well as [4] can be obtained from the publisher or the author.

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Herbrand, Martin; Classen, Martin Shear tests on continuous prestressed concrete beams with external prestressing Structural Concrete 3/2015 428-437 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

According to current design codes, many existing road bridges exhibit shear capacity deficits. This is partly due to increased traffic loads and partly due to changes in the code provisions. In order to extend the service lives of these bridges, either refined design approaches may be used or strengthening measures performed. This paper describes the results of experimental investigations into how additional external prestressing influences the shear capacity of continuous prestressed concrete beams. Within the research project, six shear tests were performed on three test beams with parabolic internal post-tensioning and additional, variable external prestressing. The aim of the project was to determine the effect of external prestressing on the shear capacity of existing bridges, and whether current design approaches lead to conservative results when used for recalculating existing bridge structures.

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