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Kuhlmann, Ulrike; Just, Adrian; Leitz, Bernadette; Grabe, JÃ¼rgen; SchallÃ¼ck, Christoph  Simplified criteria and economic design for king piles in combined steel pile walls according to Eurocode 3, part 11  Steel Construction  2/2015  122132  Articles 
KurzfassungThe steady growth in world trade leads to a demand for more port and harbour facilities. One of the most common forms of construction for deepwater harbour quays is the combined steel pile wall. It consists of up to 45 m long Hsection king piles plus Zsection intermediate sheet pile infill elements. The intermediate elements and the quay both transfer all forces to the king piles, which as a result are loaded with (bi)axial bending and axial force, so their stability must be checked. Up to now the effect of the soil surrounding the piles was used just in terms of best practice  buckling about the weak axis and lateral torsional buckling were neglected completely. Considering these stability phenomena in design without taking the soil into account would lead to a very conservative approach. As verification of lateral torsional buckling according to EN 199311 (EC311) becomes relevant when the embedment is neglected, a more refined analysis has been developed. x


Eleventh edition of the Edoardo Benvenuto Prize  Steel Construction  2/2015  132  News  
Helbig, Thorsten; Kamp, Florian; Oppe, Matthias  An Eye to the Sky  Inclined grid shell dome of 90 m in Astana, Kazakhstan  Steel Construction  2/2015  133138  Report 
KurzfassungA 6500 m² glazed grid shell dome covers the Nazarbayev Centre in Astana, Kazakhstan. Located near the Presidential Palace, this futuristic building, designed by Foster Partners in London, is one of a whole series of prominent architectural buildings in Astana. x


News: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  138  News  
KurzfassungThe DVS EXPO will focus on robotics and virtual welding trainers x


ECCS News: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  139142  ECCS News  
Stadsbrug Nijmegen: a beauty with waves and curves  Steel Construction  2/2015  142143  News  
Schlaich, JÃ¶rg  Hyperbolic structures. Shukhov's Lattice Towers  Forerunners of Modern Lightweight Construction. From Beckh, M.  Steel Construction  2/2015  143144  Book review 
Announcement: Steel Construction 2/2015  Steel Construction  2/2015  144  Announcement  
Contents: Structural Concrete 2/2015  Structural Concrete  2/2015  Contents  
Andrade, Carmen  Modelling the concretereal environment interaction to predict service life  Structural Concrete  2/2015  159160  Editorial 
Kromoser, Benjamin; Kollegger, Johann  Pneumatic forming of hardened concrete  building shells in the 21st century  Structural Concrete  2/2015  161171  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungDoublecurvature shells, used as supporting structures, are strong and save materials. Major parts of the applied loads can be carried by normal forces. Thus, the stresses are distributed very uniformly and efficiently over the entire crosssection, and long spans can be built with small thicknesses. The state of the art in the construction of shell structures is characterized by a high labour input for formwork and falsework. A new construction method without formwork and falsework has been invented at the Institute for Structural Engineering at Vienna University of Technology. The idea of this new construction method is to build concrete shells with a double curvature originating from an initially plane plate. During the transformation process, the hardened concrete plate is lifted and the elements are bent with the aid of pneumatic formwork until the required curvature is reached. Nonlinear finite element calculations, tension tests, bending tests and bonding tests were carried out in order to determine a suitable combination of concrete and reinforcement. The second part of the paper describes a largescale experiment for the erection of a 17.6 × 10.8 m, 2.9 m high freeform shell. Finally, different applications for the new method are explained. x


Galmarini, Andreas; Locher, Daniel; Marti, Peter  Predicting the responses of reinforced concrete slab strips subjected to axial tension and transverse load  a competition  Structural Concrete  2/2015  172183  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungSix largescale tests on reinforced concrete slab strips were carried out at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, in order to investigate the loadbearing behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to axial tension and transverse load. Four of these tests were used for an international competition to predict the responses of the test specimens. The specimens differed in the axial tension applied and the presence of stirrups. x


Kassem, Wael  Shear strength of deep beams: a mathematical model and design formula  Structural Concrete  2/2015  184194  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThis paper presents a proposal for estimating the shear capacity of reinforced concrete deep beams. The proposed model is based on the fixedangle softened truss model and utilizes a newly proposed formula for the effective transverse compressive stress acting on the beam web. The proposed formula is developed using a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the reported shear capacity values of 445 experimental deep beams. The validity of the mathematical model is examined by comparing its response with the experimental results as well as the predictions of other formulas available in the literature, and it results in the one best fitting the measured shear strengths. The mathematical model leads to an explicit single closedform expression for computing the shear strength of deep beams. The proposed expression is dimensionless and contains four variables that express the horizontal and vertical reinforcement ratios, the concrete strength and the shear spantodepth ratio. On the basis of the results of this paper, a design formula is proposed with predictions that are more consistent and also more reliable than those of the ACI Code and the Eurocode. x


Classen, Martin; Herbrand, Martin  Shear behaviour of composite dowels in transversely cracked concrete  Structural Concrete  2/2015  195206  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungIn steelconcrete composite girders, innovative composite dowels can be used to transfer the shear forces between the concrete slab and the steel section. Today, composite dowels are predominately used in engineering structures such as prefabricated composite bridges. However, due to their ease of manufacture, good loadbearing and deformation properties and suitability for slender concrete slabs, these composite dowels are being used more than ever in building construction as well. The present article describes shear tests on puzzleshaped composite dowels for slender concrete slabs with a depth of only 10 cm. Aside from different reinforcement configurations, the influence of different longitudinal stress states and transverse cracking in the concrete slab have been investigated. In previous studies of the shear force capacity of composite dowels, the influence of transverse cracking has been neglected. However, our own experiments described in this paper show that the shear capacity of composite dowels is significantly affected by concrete cracking. In order to simulate the experiments performed and to analyse the shear behaviour of the composite dowels in cracked and uncracked concrete, a threedimensional, nonlinear finite element model of the shear tests was set up. The results of both the experimental and numerical investigations are summarized in this paper. x


FernÃ¡ndezMontes, David; GonzÃ¡lez Valle, Enrique; DÃaz Heredia, Elena  Influence of axial tension on the shear strength of floor joists without transverse reinforcement  Structural Concrete  2/2015  207220  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe mechanism governing shear strength in reinforced concrete members without transverse reinforcement subjected to both bending and tensile stress is complex. Further, formulas used to estimate shear failure are inconsistent with each other and do not fit well with experimental findings. This article highlights the differences between the results of experimental tests and the shear strength values estimated with the equations of ACI 31811, Eurocode 2 (EC2) and modified compression field theory (MCFT). The tests considered are the ones reported in the literature consulted and the tests carried out for this experimental investigation, some with highperformance concrete. The review also puts forward a proposal for improving the method and fitting procedure when estimating the shear failure in a longitudinal reinforced concrete member without transverse reinforcement due to an excessive principal tensile stress in its web. x


Schlicke, Dirk; Tue, Nguyen Viet  Minimum reinforcement for crack width control in restrained concrete members considering the deformation compatibility  Structural Concrete  2/2015  221232  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe current design code EC2 [1] regulates the minimum reinforcement for crack width control in restrained concrete members by taking up the cracking force of the cross section. Although this concept gives straightforward results, its consistent application can lead to high reinforcement amounts with increasing member thickness. The reason is the simplifying assumption of an infinite member length neglecting the deformation compatibility. x


Costa, Ricardo Joel Teixeira; ProvidÃªncia, Paulo; Dias, Alfredo  Considering the size and strength of beamcolumn joints in the design of RC frames  Structural Concrete  2/2015  233248  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungSome experimental research studies have reported that longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns exhibits larger strains inside the joint than at the joint periphery (defined as the intersection of the outer surfaces of beam and column). This may explain why several technical specifications and stateoftheart programs recommend basing the design of beams and columns on internal force values larger than those at the joint periphery. These results and procedures are questionable and are investigated in this paper. The nonlinear finite element analysis presented here for reinforced concrete frames under gravity and quasistatic monotonic lateral loads examines (i) the stress fields in reinforcement inside interior, exterior and roof exterior joints, and (ii) the loadcarrying capacity of representative subframe models incorporating such joints. The results prove that it is actually safe, with respect to the joint load capacity, to base the design of longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns on the internal force values at the joint periphery. This result also contributes to the recommendation to use realsize beamcolumn joint models in the analysis procedure. x


Xiao, Jianzhuang; Sun, Chang; Jiang, Xinghan  Flexural behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete graded slabs  Structural Concrete  2/2015  249261  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThis paper proposes a new concept for “recycled aggregate concrete graded slabs”, which can be achieved through graded distribution for the mechanical properties of the recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). In this study, one fourpoint bending test was used to investigate six RAC graded slabs and three homogeneous slabs with RAC. The major parameters considered were the layers with different recycled coarse aggregates (RCAs) replacement percentages (0, 50 and 100%), the grading pattern (different casting methods) and the reinforcement ratio. It has been concluded that RAC graded slabs have similar flexural behaviour to that of homogeneous slabs with RAC. The reinforcement ratio, the layers with different RCA replacement percentages and the grading pattern can influence the flexural behaviour of RAC graded slabs. Furthermore, the effects of the three factors on both the flexural capacity and the deflection of the RAC graded slabs were studied with finite element method (FEM) simulation using ABAQUS software. Both the experiments and the FEM analysis indicate that the flexural behaviour of RAC slabs can be improved by using this suitable grading method. x


Colombo, Matteo; Martinelli, Paolo; di Prisco, Marco  A design approach for tunnels exposed to blast and fire  Structural Concrete  2/2015  262272  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungA design procedure based on a simplified FE model for underground tunnels subjected to internal explosion and possibly preceded by fire accidents is proposed in this article. The procedure can provide a valuable tool for designers who have to check the structural safety of a tunnel for the case of an internal blast event. The tunnel geometry considered is the same adopted for the metro line in Brescia, Italy. It has an internal diameter of about 8.15 m, is about 13.7 km long and is located about 23.1 m below the surface. Six segments and a smaller key segment (6+1) make up the tunnel. The ring has an average width of about 1.5 m. The FE model is first tested under static serviceability loads. Dynamic analyses are carried out in order to reproduce the blast scenario. The aim of this work is to generate pressureimpulse (pi) diagrams for underground tunnels for the case of internal explosion and preexplosion fire actions. An ultimate limit state criterion based on the eccentric ultimate flexural capacity and capable of including fireblast interaction is introduced. An innovative layered precast tunnel segment solution made of different fibrereinforced cementitious composites is compared with a traditional solution with the lining section made of reinforced concrete. The potential applications of this new solution are also discussed in the paper. x


Van Tittelboom, Kim; Gruyaert, Elke; De Backer, Pieter; Moerman, Wim; De Belie, Nele  Selfrepair of thermal cracks in concrete sandwich panels  Structural Concrete  2/2015  273288  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungAlthough the use of insulated concrete sandwich panels results in more energyefficient buildings, the presence of this insulation layer can induce thermal cracks. As cracks form a preferential path for aggressive agents to enter and degrade the concrete matrix, and as they are not wanted in this application from an aesthetical point of view, they need to be treated. The aim of this study was to seal the cracks in concrete sandwich panels invisibly in an autonomous way. Therefore, the efficiency of various encapsulated healing agents was compared by inducing thermal cracks in concrete sandwich panels, thus causing capsule breakage and the release of the agents into the cracks. It was shown that encapsulation of both polyurethane and a waterrepellent agent can result in a reduction in the water uptake by cracks. However, only when a waterrepellent agent was released cracks were healed in an almost invisible way. This study has shown that the selfhealing approach involving encapsulated polymerbased healing agents can also be applied to concrete sandwich panels, although more research will be needed to meet the specific healing requirements of this application. x


Gang, Xu; Yunpan, Li; Yibiao, Su; Ke, Xu  Chloride ion transport mechanism in concrete due to wetting and drying cycles  Structural Concrete  2/2015  289296  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe transport mechanism of chloride ions in concrete during wetting and drying cycles of varying duration is evaluated in this paper. The experimental test results were used to validate a numerical simulation model in order to assess the influence of diffusion coefficient, surface chloride ion concentration and ratio of drywet cycle durations on the transport mechanism of chloride ions in concrete. Experimental and numerical analysis results indicate that the maximum transmission depth of chloride ions in concrete depends on the diffusion coefficient and the drywet cycle regime but has little relationship with the surface concentration of chloride. The chloride ion transmission in the surface zone accelerates only if the drywet ratio is > 1. As the drywet ratio increases, so the chloride ion transmission accelerates. It tends to become stable when the drywet ratio reaches 5:1. The drywet cycles accelerate the transport process of chloride ions within a certain distance from the surface; beyond this distance, chloride ions in the complete immersion specimen migrate more rapidly than those under drywet cycles. The peak concentration of chloride ions within the convection zone has a relationship with the diffusion coefficient, the surface chloride ion concentration and the drywet regime. The smaller the diffusion coefficient, the higher the surface chloride concentration; the greater the drywet ratio, the higher the peak of convection can be. x


Hajali, Masood; Alavinasab, Ali; Shdid, Caesar Abi  Effect of the location of broken wire wraps on the failure pressure of prestressed concrete cylinder pipes  Structural Concrete  2/2015  297303  Technical Papers 
KurzfassungThe effect of the location of broken prestressing wire wraps on the overall strength of prestressed concrete cylinder pipes (PCCP) is investigated here. An advanced computational model based on nonlinear finite element analysis is used to study three possible locations of broken wire wraps: at the spigot joint, at the bell joint and in the barrel of the pipe. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the cracking of the concrete core and the yielding of the prestressing wires and steel cylinder with increasing internal pressure and with an increasing number of broken wire wraps. Two classes of 2.44 m embedded cylinder pipe (ECP) were modelled with 5, 35, 70, and 100 wire wrap breaks. The results show that broken wire wraps at the joint, and especially the spigot joint, decrease the overall strength of PCCP more so than those at the bell joint or in the barrel of the pipe. The intensity of this effect increases with increasing internal pressure and with a larger number of broken wire wraps. x


fibnews: Structural Concrete 2/2015  Structural Concrete  2/2015  305311  fibnews  
KurzfassungWider scope for Commission 1; A first for FRP in Ghent; Presidium meets in Lausanne; fib Bulletin 74; ‘Innovative Concretes’ in Ulm; Short notes; Congresses and symposia; Acknowledgement x


Inhalt: UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft 2/2015  UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft  2/2015  Inhalt  
Ernst & Sohn (Hrsg.)  Gesamtausgabe UBB 2/2015  UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft  2/2015  124  Gesamtausgabe 