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Cerjak, Horst; Enzinger, Norbert; Pudar, Milan Development, experience and qualification of steel grades for hydropower conduits Steel Construction 4/2013 265-270 Articles

Kurzfassung

In this contribution the historical development of materials and applied welding procedures in the field of hydropower plant shafts and penstocks is summarized. Based on the experiences and failure cases observed in the past in combination with modern methods, a best practice solution for the qualification of materials and processes is proposed. Additionally to weldability based on strength and toughness, fracture mechanics, fatigue behaviour and stress corrosion sensitivity have to be considered. All these measures have to be validated by application of related advanced NDT processes.

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A membrane canopy for the roof of university buildings in Turin Steel Construction 4/2013 270 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Lechner, Andreas; Krüger, Klaus; Greiner, Richard Stress analysis in mitre bends embedded in rock - new derivation and extension of existing formulae for use in penstocks Steel Construction 4/2013 271-279 Articles

Kurzfassung

In the construction of pressurized conduits for hydropower plants, segmented bends (mitre bends) are widely used where ducts change direction. In practical applications, different approaches are used to consider the effects for exposed mitre bends in structural steel design. However, formulae for mitre bends embedded in rock or concrete for penstocks in underground installations have not been available so far.
In view of these restrictions on the calculation of underground mitre bends, the authors have developed analytical formulae for mitre bends embedded in rock by introducing terms for the elastic foundation of the rock mass to extend the classical differential equation for cylindrical shells. These formulae allow the whole local stress state in the bend to be calculated, in particular for the stress concentrations at the intersection of the mitre. The formulae were then validated by comparing them with the results of non-linear FE analyses.

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Greiner, Richard; Stering, Wilfried; Innerhofer, Guntram New design aspects for steel linings made of high-strength steel for pressure shafts Steel Construction 4/2013 280-286 Articles

Kurzfassung

After an interruption in the last decades of the 20th century, a number of pressure shafts with steel linings are presently being built or planned. These are frequently connected with the use of high-strength steel and with pumped storage plants. Larger dimensions and higher dynamic loads demand further research beyond the previous state of the art of the 1980s. An advanced concept by the second author, involving the geotechnical interaction of steel lining and rock mass, opens up new potential for the design of linings. This approach postulates ductility requirements for the steel used for liners which may be challenging for the field of modern high-strength steels. This paper provides an overview of the latest investigations dealing with the design of steel liners for internal pressure and the required properties for high-strength steel.

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Greiner, Richard; Lechner, Andreas Fatigue strength of high-strength steel linings with different types of grouting opening Steel Construction 4/2013 287-293 Articles

Kurzfassung

Owing to the increased use of high-strength steel (HSS) grades for steel linings in pressure shafts, the fatigue check becomes more and more critical for the proper design of such components. Eurocode 3, AD 2000 and IIW Recommendations do not consider the specific needs of liners with grouting openings (also called nipples) in combination with the higher steel grades. Therefore, a three-year research project of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) was conducted to focus on investigating the fatigue strength of grouting nipples. This project saw a new design concept for steel linings with nipples established which takes into consideration the design concept of the Eurocode. The new findings regarding the fatigue strength of nipples were embedded in this concept.

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Berner, Klaus; Hassinen, Paavo; Heselius, Lars; Izabel, David; Käpplein, Saskia; Lange, Jörg; Misiek, Thoma; Rädel, Felicitas; Tillonen, Ak; Zupancic, Danijel New European Recommendations for the design and application of sandwich panels - Results of the work of the Joint Committee on Sandwich Constructions Steel Construction 4/2013 294-300 Report

Kurzfassung

The design and manufacture of factory-made self-supporting sandwich panels are covered by European standard EN 14509. Two new European Recommendations extend the potential applications for the standard, providing information about the influence of openings on the loadbearing behaviour of the panels and about the possibility of supporting beams, purlins and cladding rails against stability failures. The new European Recommendations were prepared by the European Joint Committee on Sandwich Constructions.

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Demmer, Angelika Charles Massonnet Award 2013 to Univ.-Prof. em. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Lindner Steel Construction 4/2013 301-302 People

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Beg, Darko Ioannis Vayas reaches 60 Steel Construction 4/2013 302 People

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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ECCS Steel Design Awards 2013 and European Student Awards 2013 Steel Construction 4/2013 303 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Announcement: Steel Construction 4/2013 Steel Construction 4/2013 303 Announcement

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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ECCS News: Steel Construction 4/2013 Steel Construction 4/2013 304-306 ECCS News

Kurzfassung

Events
Announcements
Technical Committees (TC) activities
TC News

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Contents: Structural Concrete 4/2013 Structural Concrete 4/2013 Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Müller, Harald S. Sustainable structural concrete - from today's approach to future challenge Structural Concrete 4/2013 299-300 Editorial

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Sakai, Koji Sustainability in fib Model Code 2010 and its future perspective Structural Concrete 4/2013 301-308 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Considering the depletion of resources and energy and the risks of climate change on a global scale, a thoughtless increase in the use of resources and energy in the construction sector is obviously unacceptable. The sector has until now constructed a system of technology focused on safety and comfort, with priority given to economic and social benefits. Such demands remain extremely important; however, in the future we ought to give additional consideration to the depletion of resources, energy consumption and other, ensuing environmental issues. This means that the sector needs to incorporate sustainability - including the environmental, economic and social aspects - into its systems of design and technology. The fib decided to incorporate a “concrete sustainability” concept in its new fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. This paper explains sustainability as expressed in this code together with the background to it. In addition, the essence of sustainability with respect to future Model Codes is discussed.

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Bigaj-van Vliet, Agnieszka; Vrouwenvelder, Ton Reliability in the performance-based concept of fib Model Code 2010 Structural Concrete 4/2013 309-319 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The design philosophy of the new fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 represents the state of the art with regard to performance-based approach to the design and assessment of concrete structures. Given the random nature of quantities determining structural behaviour, the assessment of structural performance cannot be well established by deterministic methods, instead requires a probabilistic approach. The performance-based approach is introduced in Part I of fib Model Code 2010 by applying the concept of performance requirements and reliability management during service life. Correct understanding of the reliability concept of fib Model Code 2010 is a basic prerequisite for applying its design philosophy in an appropriate manner. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to explain some decidedly non-trivial issues related to safety and reliability management aspects. In this context, this paper indicates how this general philosophy in fib Model Code 2010 is further developed into a set of operational rules for the design and assessment of concrete structures.

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Müller, Harald S.; Anders, Isabel; Breiner, Raphael; Vogel, Michael Concrete: treatment of types and properties in fib Model Code 2010 Structural Concrete 4/2013 320-334 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Section 5.1 “Concrete” of the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 contains basic definitions and well-established constitutive relations for structural concrete. However, it also presents various new approaches and updated models compared with the earlier CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. This is particularly true for the strength, stress and strain characteristics of structural concrete, for creep and shrinkage and for sophisticated durability-related processes. The validity of the models has been extended to several types of concrete such as high strength concrete, self-compacting concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete. The durability-related models are either suitable for facilitating a full probabilistic service life design or for applying simpler code-type approaches.
This article provides a concise and selective overview of some of those models. Background information is summarized and there is a focus on improvements achieved by the updated models. In addition, some simple design aids are given to allow pre-design, for example

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Triantafillou, Thanasis; Matthys, Stijn Fibre-reinforced polymer reinforcement enters fib Model Code 2010 Structural Concrete 4/2013 335-341 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Most applications of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) deal with externally bonded reinforcement as a means of repairing and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) structures or retrofitting RC structures in seismic regions. As internal reinforcement, FRP rebars or (more rarely) prestressing elements are used in special projects, combining material strength and durability characteristics. Over the last years, several national and international design guidelines have become available specifically for the design and application of FRP-strengthened or FRP-reinforced concrete structures. These efforts clearly demonstrate the interest in FRP as a novel reinforcing material for concrete construction. Hence, the time had come to introduce FRP reinforcement into the new fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 as well. The main contributions to the fib Model Code 2010 relate to sections 5.5 “Non-metallic reinforcement” and 6.2 “Bond of non-metallic reinforcement”. The material presented in those two sections is further elaborated in this article.

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di Prisco, Marco; Colombo, Matteo; Dozio, Daniele Fibre-reinforced concrete in fib Model Code 2010: principles, models and test validation Structural Concrete 4/2013 342-361 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

In the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010, fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) is recognized as a new material for structures. This introduction will favour forthcoming structural applications because the need of adopting new design concepts and the lack of international building codes have significantly limited its use up to now. In the code, considerable effort has been devoted to introducing a material classification to standardize performance-based production and stimulate an open market for every kind of fibre, favouring the rise of a new technological player: the composite producer.
Starting from standard classification, the simple constitutive models introduced allow the designer to identify effective constitutive laws for design, trying to take into account the major contribution in terms of performance and providing good orientation for structural uses. Basic new concepts such as structural characteristic length and new factors related to fibre distribution and structural redistribution benefits are taken into account. A few examples of structural design starting from the constitutive laws identified are briefly shown.
FRC can be regarded as a special concrete characterized by a certain toughness after cracking. For this reason, the most important constitutive law introduced is the stress-crack opening response in uniaxial tension. A wide discussion of the constitutive models introduced to describe this behaviour, which controls all the main contributions of fibres for a prevailing mode I crack propagation, is proposed. The validity of the models is discussed with reference to ordinary cross-sections as well as thin-walled elements by adopting plane section or finite element models.

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Matthews, Stuart; Bigaj-van Vliet, Agnieszka Conservation of concrete structures according to fib Model Code 2010 Structural Concrete 4/2013 362-377 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Conservation of concrete structures forms an essential part of the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 (fib Model Code 2010). In particular, Chapter 9 of fib Model Code 2010 addresses issues concerning conservation strategies and tactics, conservation management, condition surveys, condition assessment, condition evaluation and decision-making, making interventions and the recording of information for through-life management.
Chapter 9 incorporates the overall philosophy adopted in the development of fib Model Code 2010, which introduces a new integrated life cycle perspective into the design of concrete structures. Accordingly, Chapter 9 provides a response to concepts introduced earlier within fib Model Code 2010 relating to the service life design process, which requires the structure and its component parts to be allocated to a condition control category at the time of design. Different condition control categories are defined depending on factors such as the importance of the structure, its function, design service life, impact on third parties, environmental conditions, ease of maintenance and cost. The condition control levels and inspection regimes are defined in conjunction with these requirements. A through-life management process, outlined in Chapter 9, provides feedback for service life design and allows the associated theoretical model employed to be updated, in turn facilitating the assessment of compliance with the original design objectives.
An example of concrete structure conservation according to the fib Model Code 2010 concept is also presented.

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Phan, Thanh Song; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Rossi, Pierre 3D numerical modelling of concrete structural element reinforced with ribbed flat steel rebars Structural Concrete 4/2013 378-388 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Construction company MATIERE has developed a new type of reinforcement based on ribbed flat steel in recent years. The objective of the present work is to obtain information about the bending behaviour of RC structural elements reinforced with these ribbed flat steel bars and also about the cracking process they induce (number of cracks and crack opening), especially at the serviceability limit state. The structural element chosen for this work is a small slab-beam (330 × 15 × 80 cm) subjected to three-point central bending. Concurrent with this experimental study, a 3D finite element model was developed at IFSTTAR to consolidate the experimental results. It appears that the numerical modelling strategy chosen in this work is relevant for analysing both the bending behaviour of an RC structural element and its cracking process.

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Silva, Ricardo; Faria, Duarte M. Viúla; Ramos, A. Pinho; Inácio, Micael A physical approach for considering how anchorage head size influences the punching capacity of slabs strengthened with vertical steel bolts Structural Concrete 4/2013 389-400 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The introduction of new vertical steel bolts is an easy, practical and common solution for retrofitting and strengthening slabs for punching. Although a common option where punching strengthening is concerned, few studies exist regarding how the bolt's anchorage dimensions and its embedment in the concrete slab affect the strengthening efficiency. This work presents an analytical approach that is able to predict the punching capacity of slabs strengthened with post-installed vertical steel bolts, taking into account the anchorage dimensions and positioning plus the material properties. This approach results from the combination of two physical models: one provided in the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 regarding the punching capacity estimation, and another that allows the deformation (crushing) of the concrete beneath the head of the anchorage to be taken into account. The predicted values are compared with experimental results, showing that the analytical approach is able to simulate correctly the anchorage behaviour and its influence regarding a slab's loadbearing capacity. A parametrical analysis is carried out in order to study the importance of different factors such as concrete compressive strength, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and steel bolt length, always accompanied by the effect of anchorage head size and embedment.

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Sagaseta, Juan The influence of aggregate fracture on the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams: an experimental and analytical research project Structural Concrete 4/2013 401-414 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

High-performance concretes such as high-strength concrete (HSC) or lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) are generally used to reduce member sizes and self-weight, and to optimize the construction of reinforced concrete structures. The bond between the aggregate particles and the cement paste can be strong enough in HSC and LWAC to cause the aggregate to fracture at cracks, which in turn reduces the shear stress that can be transferred across cracks by means of aggregate interlock. Relatively smooth cracks can also develop in self-compacting concrete due to the low coarse aggregate content. The contribution of aggregate interlock to the shear strength of RC beams is uncertain and depends on parameters such as the amount of shear reinforcement or the contribution of arching action for loads applied close to the support. Existing tests on slender RC beams without shear reinforcement have shown that shear strength is reduced by aggregate fracture. However, there is a lack of similar test data for members with stirrups and for members with varying shear span/effective depth ratios. This paper reviews the findings and contributions in this area from the experimental and analytical research of the author's PhD thesis, which was awarded the fib Achievement Award for Young Engineers in 2011.

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Lu, Xilin; Yin, Xiaowei; Jiang, Huanjun Restoring force model for steel reinforced concrete columns with high steel ratio Structural Concrete 4/2013 415-422 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Key points on the load-displacement skeleton curves of steel reinforced concrete (SRC) composite cantilever columns are established based on the experimental results in the literature. Influencing parameters such as the ratio of encased steel, the transverse reinforcement characteristic value, the size of the cross-section, etc. are considered in the study. A degrading trilinear restoring force model applicable to SRC columns with an encased steel ratio of 10-20% is suggested. The main results show that the influencing parameters have different effects on the values of key points. The proposed restoring force model, which considers various influencing parameters, can predict the test results more accurately and can be applied to the non-linear dynamic analysis of structures with such SRC column types.

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2013 reviewers Structural Concrete 4/2013 423 Reviewers

Kurzfassung

A list of referees who have reviewed papers for Structural Concrete in 2013. Ernst & Sohn and fib are very grateful for their assistance.

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fib-news: Structural Concrete 4/2013 Structural Concrete 4/2013 424-433 fib-news

Kurzfassung

Results of the 2014 fib Awards for Outstanding Concrete Structures competition
Fourth International fib Congress and Exhibition, Mumbai, India
Recent fib-supported events in Asia
Model Code 2010 courses in Argentina and Austria
Report from the fib UK Member Group
3rd International Workshop on Concrete Spalling
Marseille, a UHPFRC world capital
fib Bulletins
A.S.G. Bruggeling's 90th birthday
Ralejs Tepfers' 80th birthday
Peter Schiessl's 70th birthday
Steen Rostam's 70th birthday
MC2010 book
Congresses and symposia

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