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Zió?ko, Jerzy; Mikulski, Tomasz; Supernak, Ewa Deformations of the steel shell of a vertical cylindrical tank caused by underpressure Steel Construction 1/2016 33-36 Articles

Kurzfassung

Underpressure in a tank with a fixed roof may arise in the final stage of its construction as well as during its usage. After completing the construction, when the tank is empty and all manholes and valves, through which air could get into the tank, are tightly closed, underpressure may arise in the case of a sudden change in the weather (air pressure and temperature), which is particularly dangerous in spring or summer. When the tank is in use, underpressure may arise if breather valves are obstructed, e.g. covered by snow during pumping out a product stored in the tank. Underpressure may cause extensive deformations of the shell or the roof of the tank. However, the shell undergoes deformation more frequently, since the roof has a stiff supporting structure.
This article presents stages of deformations of the tank shell and their development from the occurrence of the first deformation to either removal of the causes of underpressure or cracking of the steel shell and thus automatic equalization of pressure inside the tank with atmospheric pressure.

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Gorenc, Barbara; Beg ?, Darko Curtain wall façade system under lateral actions with regard to limit states Steel Construction 1/2016 37-45 Articles

Kurzfassung

During high wind or earthquake action, high-rise multi-storey buildings respond with relatively large storey drifts. The building envelope, in this case a curtain wall, exposed to this in-plane shear resists the action with its drift capacity. This paper describes tests on two different configurations of a newly developed unitized curtain wall, “Qbiss Air” (QAir), using three different cyclic protocols. The protocols were derived on the basis of the serviceability limit state for regions with moderate to high wind and seismicity. The details and configuration influence the response of the system significantly, so the design of the structure can provide accurate information for the design of such systems.

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Pirmoz, Akbar; Ahadi, Parviz; Farajkhah, Vahid Finite element analysis of extended stiffened end plate link-to-column connections Steel Construction 1/2016 46-57 Articles

Kurzfassung

The applicability of extended stiffened end plate (ESEP) connections used as link-to-column connections in eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) with long (flexural yielding) links is examined in this paper. A finite element method (FEM) is used for this purpose, based on a validated parametric FE benchmark. Analysing the numerical model of an ESEP connection designed to the recent seismic design rules for special moment frames reveals that the link-to-column connections of EBFs sustain more severe conditions than the moment connections of moment-resisting systems. The design approach implemented is examined and the results are discussed. The results demonstrate that ESEP connections can be used as a successful alternative for the link-to-column connections of EBFs and the system with this type of connection can achieve the required rotations for long or flexural links.

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Machelski, Czes?aw; Toczkiewicz, Robert Effects of connection flexibility in bridge girders under moving loads Steel Construction 1/2016 58-66 Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper looks at the problem of connection flexibility in steel-concrete bridge girders under moving loads. The static action of the load changing location on the structure is considered. An analytical model of the girder is used assuming strain discontinuity at the steel-concrete interface as a result of beam-plate partial interaction. The effects of a flexible connection are characterized by the proposed index defined on the basis of the internal forces in the girder. This index can be calculated during loading tests on the basis of the neutral axis position at the section of the girder considered. Numerical analyses show that values of the index characterizing beam-plate interaction depend on the position of the load on the structure and the function describing connection stiffness.

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Keil, Andreas; Plieninger, Sven; Linden, Sebastian; Sander, Christiane Simple Bridges Steel Construction 1/2016 67-73 Report

Kurzfassung

Many famous footbridges show have a spectacular, eye-catching design or functionality. They feature extravagant structures, large spans or outstanding locations and they are globally published and widely discussed amongst professionals and laymen.
However, there are smaller and simpler bridges, whose good and appropriate design, structural behaviour and sustainability can only be seen at the second look. While not having showy features they are beautiful, reasonable, efficient, sometimes trendsetting but always interesting enough to justify careful attention.
This paper presents five bridges - designed by schlaich bergermann partner, completed within the past few years - that are characterized especially by their apparent simplicity: a simple beam bridge in Backnang, three arch bridges in Dortmund, a prestressed concrete beam bridge in Hamburg, a two-span stress ribbon bridge in Schwäbisch Gmünd and a fixed-end beam bridge in Esslingen.

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ECCS news: Steel Construction 1/2016 Steel Construction 1/2016 74-77 ECCS news

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Announcements: Steel Construction 1/2016 Steel Construction 1/2016 77 Announcements

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Floating wind farms near Norway, Portugal and Japan Steel Construction 1/2016 78 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Content: Structural Concrete 1/2016 Structural Concrete 1/2016 Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Beushausen, Hans Predicting the behaviour of concrete structures - modelling or testing? Structural Concrete 1/2016 1-2 Editorials

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Lima de Resende, Thomás; da Conceição Domingues Shehata, Lidia; Shehata, Ibrahim Abd El Malik Shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams with small stirrups ratios Structural Concrete 1/2016 3-10 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

In comparison with a vibrated concrete (VC) of the same strength class, self-compacting concrete (SCC) typically has a lower coarse aggregate content and, possibly, a smaller maximum aggregate size. This may result in reduced aggregate interlock between the fracture surfaces of a SCC. Since aggregate interlock plays an important role in the shear strength of slender beams, SCC beams may have a shear strength lower than that of similar VC beams, but studies on that subject are still limited.
This article summarizes an experimental programme that includes beams of high-strength SCC and transverse reinforcement ratios around the minimum given by different codes - a case that had not been investigated so far. The shear strengths of those SCC beams are compared with those of VC beams with similar concrete compressive strength and small ratios of transverse reinforcement and also compared with beams calculated according to different code procedures.

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Sangiorgio, Filippo; Silfwerbrand, Johan; Mancini, Giuseppe Scatter in the shear capacity of slender RC members without web reinforcement: an overview study Structural Concrete 1/2016 11-20 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

All researchers who have tested the shear capacity of RC members without stirrups have observed a large scatter in the results.
The objective of this paper is to conduct an overview study of the causes of the great shear failure scatter of RC beams without stirrups. Thirteen groups of shear tests on comparable experiments, extracted from the ACI-DAfStb evaluation database, are considered. The amount of data available is increased numerically. To this end, based on Eurocode 2 equations for shear resistance and shrinkage strain, a full probabilistic model is defined according to the JCSS Probabilistic Model Code. A multivariate statistical evaluation of outcomes is then performed.
The investigation highlights the fact that both the tensile strength of concrete and high shrinkage values may be usefully considered for more in-depth studies of the phenomenon, whereas geometrical properties and concrete compressive strength seem to be less important or can even be neglected.

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Abbasnia, Reza; Nav, Foad Mohajeri A theoretical method for calculating the compressive arch capacity of RC beams against progressive collapse Structural Concrete 1/2016 21-31 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Compressive arch action is one of the main resistance mechanisms against progressive collapse in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Hence, many studies have investigated the development of arching action in RC beams and frames but less attention has been paid to calculating the corresponding enhancement in structural capacity. In the present study, a theoretical method is introduced in order to calculate the arching capacity of RC beams and also to obtain a quantitative assessment regarding structural robustness against progressive collapse. The proposed method is validated using the experiments in the literature. The evaluation indicates that the procedure introduced here could establish a reliable foundation for estimating the arching capacity of beams and also structural robustness.

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Chin, Siew Choo; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil Behaviour of RC beams with CFRP-strengthened openings Structural Concrete 1/2016 32-43 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

A detailed investigation was conducted to study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with large openings strengthened by externally bonded carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. A total of six simply supported beams consisting of two solid beams and four beams with openings were cast and tested under four-point bending. Each beam had a cross-section of 120 × 300 mm and length of 2000 mm. Each beam had a large opening placed symmetrically at mid-span. Test parameters included the opening shape and size as well as the strengthening configuration for the CFRP laminates. The study was conducted by way of both experimental testing and finite element analysis. The experimental results show that including a large opening at mid-span reduces the beam capacity to about 50 %. In the experimental results, strength gain due to strengthening with CFRP laminates was in the range 80-90 %. The finite element and experimental results were compared.

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Blomfors, Mattias; Engen, Morten; Plos, Mario Evaluation of safety formats for non-linear finite element analyses of statically indeterminate concrete structures subjected to different load paths Structural Concrete 1/2016 44-51 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

To increase the efficiency of new structures and perform safety evaluations of existing structures, it is necessary to model and analyse the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete. The applicability of the safety formats in present design codes is unclear for indeterminate structures subjected to loading in several directions. The safety formats in fib Model Code 2010 have been evaluated for a reinforced concrete frame subjected to vertical and horizontal loading and the influence of load history studied. Basic reliability methods were used together with response surfaces to assess the failure probabilities and one safety format did not meet the intended safety level. The results indicate the importance of load history and it is concluded that more research is required regarding how load history influences the safety level of complex structures.

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Han, Sun-Jin; Lee, Deuck Hang; Cho, Sang-Heum; Ka, Soon-Beum; Kim, Kang Su Estimation of transfer lengths in precast pretensioned concrete members based on a modified thick-walled cylinder model Structural Concrete 1/2016 52-62 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

In pretensioned concrete members, prestress is introduced by the bond mechanism between prestressing tendon and surrounding concrete. Therefore, to secure the intended level of effective prestress in the tendon, sufficient bond stresses between the prestressing tendon and the concrete should be developed at release, for which a certain length from the end of the pretensioned concrete member is required, and this required distance is defined as the transfer length of the prestressing tendon. In this study, the prestress introduction mechanism between concrete and prestressing tendon was mathematically formulated based on thick-walled cylinder theory (TWCT). On this basis, an analytical model for estimating the transfer length was presented. The proposed model was also verified through comparison with test results collected from the literature. It was confirmed that the proposed model can accurately evaluate the effects of influential factors - such as diameter of prestressing tendon, compressive strength of concrete, concrete cover thickness and magnitude of initial prestress - on the transfer lengths of prestressing tendons in various types of pretensioned concrete member.

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Claßen, Martin; Gallwoszus, Joerg Concrete fatigue in composite dowels Structural Concrete 1/2016 63-73 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

In modern bridge construction, steel-concrete composite structures with composite dowels are being built more than ever, especially for small and medium spans. In contrast to headed studs, in which initial steel cracks occur after only a few load cycles [1], [2], the lifetime of composite dowels is characterized by the compression of the multi-axially stressed concrete in front of the composite dowel. Here, plastic compression strains occur in the concrete and accumulate over load cycles, leading to a cyclic increase in relative displacements in the connection. Certain proportions of these relative displacements, called inelastic slip, remain in the connection, even after the loading is relieved. The inelastic slip changes the characteristics of the static dowel curve. The initially rigid connection degrades over its lifetime, leading to redistributions of internal forces, which may be critical for fatigue design. In order to consider the degradation of the composite connection, a cyclic dowel curve can be used, which may be developed from the static dowel curve by introducing the inelastic slip. This paper presents the results of cyclic shear tests on different composite dowel geometries. The effect of load-dependent parameters (upper load level and load range) was investigated. Furthermore, an engineering model for determining the cyclic dowel curve is presented, which was developed based on the results of experimental and numerical investigations.

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Na, Okpin; Xi, Yunping; Ou, Edward; Saouma, Victor E. The effects of alkali-silica reaction on the mechanical properties of concretes with three different types of reactive aggregate Structural Concrete 1/2016 74-83 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper investigates the degradation of the mechanical properties of concretes made with three types of aggregate affected by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Three standard testing methods - ASTM C289, JASS 5N T-603 and ASTM C1260 - were used to identify the reactivity of ASR of the three aggregates selected. The test results show that all three aggregates are potentially deleterious. A new acceleration method based on JASS 5N T-603 and ASTM C1260 was proposed for concrete specimens. In the acceleration method, cylindrical concrete specimens were used, additional alkali material was added to the concrete mixture and the specimens were stored under conditions similar to ASTM C1260. The preconditioned concrete specimens were then used for evaluating the mechanical properties of the ASR-affected concrete in terms of strength and stiffness. The test results show that special attention must be paid to the effects of two opposing mechanisms on the strength and stiffness of concrete: hydration reactions and ASR. Hydration reactions enhance the mechanical properties, whereas ASR does the opposite. The changes in length of concrete specimens were also measured, which showed that the basic trends for change in length and mechanical properties may be different. It is better to examine the effect of ASR on both change in length and mechanical properties. The size and reactivity of the aggregate are very important factors for the mechanical properties of ASR-affected concretes. Within the two-month testing period, the reactive fine aggregate might cause ASR expansion and the reactive coarse aggregates might not.

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Matos, Ana Mafalda; Sousa-Coutinho, Joana ASR and sulphate performance of mortar containing industrial waste Structural Concrete 1/2016 84-95 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

“Greener” concrete using adequate industrial waste is a preferred option for sustainable construction. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and sulphate attack (SA) on concrete can be minimized by the use of mineral additions, which are particularly interesting if derived from waste. Grits from the paper industry, waste glass and two types of biomass ash were used as 10 % cement replacement in mortar and tested for ASR and SA. Results and scanning electron microscopy observations were compared with plain mortar and mortar containing commercial silica fume. All waste materials mitigated ASR compared with the control mortar. Resistance to sulphates was increased for one of the biomass ashes used and especially for glass powder, which surpassed silica fume. Therefore, two of these waste materials seem to be promising as partial replacement materials for cement, leading to enhanced durability and thus contributing to sustainable construction.

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Qian, Chunxiang; Nie, Yanfeng; Cao, Tianji Sulphate attack-induced damage and micro-mechanical properties of concrete characterized by nano-indentation coupled with X-ray computed tomography Structural Concrete 1/2016 96-104 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Sulphate attack is a serious problem for concrete in marine environments. Sulphate attack can change the composition and microstructure of concrete and eventually influence the mechanical and durability performance. In this paper, the heterogeneity and mechanical properties of concrete exposed to sulphate is investigated from the microscopic to the mesoscopic scale. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and nano-indentation were adopted to define the defect zone and establish the relationship between interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and concrete matrix (mortar). The experiments were based on concrete and mortar specimens of different strengths. The results of XCT have nano-indentation indicate that the specimens had similar degrees of damage regionally and good correlation exists between the elastic moduli of the ITZ and the mortar. The concrete can be partitioned into three parts: the cracked zone with heavy damage, damaged zone and undamaged zone. The elastic modulus of the mortar phase and the ITZ has a linear relation.

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Kulovaná, Tereza; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Ker ner, Zbyn k; erný, Robert Mechanical, durability and hygrothermal properties of concrete produced using Portland cement-ceramic powder blends Structural Concrete 1/2016 105-115 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Blended Portland cement-ceramic powder binder containing up to 60 % fine-ground waste ceramics from a brick factory is used in concrete mix design as an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used Portland cement. The experimental analysis of basic physical characteristics, mechanical and fracture-mechanical properties, durability properties and hygrothermal characteristics shows that the optimal amount of ceramic powder in the mix is 20 % of the mass of blended cement. The decisive parameters in that respect are compressive strength, liquid water transport parameters and resistance to de-icing salts, which are not satisfactory for higher ceramics dosage in the blends. In the case of other parameters studied, the limits for the effective use of ceramic powder are higher: 40 % for effective fracture toughness and specific fracture energy, 60 % for frost resistance and chemical resistance to MgCl2, NH4Cl, Na2SO4, HCl and CO2. The water vapour diffusion coefficient is found to increase with increasing ceramics content, which for wet envelopes can be considered as a positive feature, but may have a negative effect for dry envelopes. The thermal conductivity of all mixes increases fast with growing moisture content; differences of up to 50 % between the dry and water-saturated state values are observed. This has to be taken into account in energy-related calculations.

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Shaikh, Faiz Effect of ultrafine fly ash on the properties of concretes containing construction and demolition wastes as coarse aggregates Structural Concrete 1/2016 116-122 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper presents the preliminary results of the effect of ultrafine fly ash (UFFA) on the properties of concretes containing recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) originating from construction and demolition (C&D) wastes. The effect of 10 % UFFA on the compressive strength, tensile strength, sorptivity and chloride ion permeability of concretes containing 25 and 50 % RCA is evaluated at 7, 28 and 56 days. The addition of UFFA increased the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concretes at all ages up to 56 days. However, a slight reduction in the tensile strength of recycled aggregate concretes was observed. Concrete containing 25 % RCA and 10 % UFFA achieved 94 % of the control concrete's compressive strength at 56 days. In both recycled aggregate concretes tested, the sorptivity and chloride ion permeability are much lower at all ages due to the addition of 10 % UFFA. This is because it serves to promote hydration and block the large capillary pores within the concrete.

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fib-news: Structural Concrete 1/2016 Structural Concrete 1/2016 125-131 fib-news

Kurzfassung

fib MC2020: The story so far
New fib SG
fib-ACI MoC
Betontage inShanghai
COM4: Materials-related priorities
4th IWCS
Ralejs Tepfers 1933-2015
Gabriel Tevec 1936-2016
Congresses and symposia
Acknowledgement

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Inhalt: UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft 1/2016 UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft 1/2016 Inhalt

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Jahresinhaltsverzeichnis des 38. Jahrgangs 2015 UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft 1/2016 Jahresinhaltsverzeichnis

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Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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