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Lange, Jörg Pozorski, Z.: Sandwich panels in civil engineering - Theory, testing and design. Steel Construction 3/2016 169 Book reviews

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Pak, Daniel; Kopp, Maik; Feldmann, Markus; Seidl, Günter Condition monitoring of VFT-Rail® slab-track railway bridges Steel Construction 3/2016 170-178 Articles

Kurzfassung

In 2010 the VFT-Rail® system was approved in accordance with CEN and railway standards by Germany's Federal Railway Authority (EBA) for operational testing. The approval was accompanied by a monitoring campaign on a VFT-Rail® bridge crossing the River Simmerbach. As a result of the positive experience gained during the operation of this bridge, two additional railway bridges were designed by SSF Ingenieure AG and put into service in 2014 by Deutsche Bahn (DB). To survey those bridges, a monitoring programme has been developed and instigated. The monitoring programme includes investigating the stress distribution between the concrete and specially designed composite dowels, which have a better fatigue resistance compared with conventional headed studs. The forces at several rail support points are also a focus of interest. The German railway operator DB Netz AG requested the survey to prove the applicability of state-of-the-art calculation methods, which were not part of compulsory codes.

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Evaluation of the performance of steel fibre reinforced self-compacting concrete in elevated slab systems; from the material to the structure Steel Construction 3/2016 178 Completed Phd theses

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Ungermann, Dieter; Holtkamp, Svenja; Rademacher, Dennis Hot-dip galvanized composite dowel strips Steel Construction 3/2016 179-183 Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper presents additional potential for the future economic development of composite dowel strips by using the durable and long-lasting corrosion protection of hot-dip galvanization. Based on the completed FOSTA research project P835 [5] on the use of hot-dip galvanizing for steel and composite bridge construction, the range of applications for hot-dip galvanizing will be transferred to composite dowel strips in composite bridges. Following a brief summary of the most important results of the previous project, where the corrosion protection duration and the influence of hot-dip galvanizing on the fatigue behaviour of steel were examined, the objectives and planned studies of the new research project will be presented. The currently ongoing FOSTA research project P1042 [8] was initiated by RWTH Aachen University and TU Dortmund University. The results should allow the safe use of hot-dip galvanized composite dowel strips in conjunction with cyclic loads.

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Fire resistance of cold-formed steel columns Steel Construction 3/2016 183 Completed Phd theses

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Steurer, Marlene; Petraschek, Thomas; Fink, Josef Development of an innovative sandwich plate for trough-type railway bridges - Extremely slender deck slab structure in steel-concrete composite design with cellular longitudinal shear connectors Steel Construction 3/2016 184-190 Articles

Kurzfassung

Substitute structures for old railway bridges with open railway tracks, which are constructed in accordance with valid European standards and regulations, require a specific, suitable deck slab design. Therefore, a composite plate with cellular longitudinal shear connectors and a low overall depth of 200 mm has been investigated at the Research Centre of Steel Structures (TU Wien). The research programme comprised experimental studies as well as additional numerical analyses by means of the finite element method concerning the shear force transmission-mechanism of the sandwich design. Laboratory studies included, among other issues, information about the failure mechanism in the core concrete. This article provides a description of the test program and gives a brief summary of selected research results. A short overview on continuing research activities to determine the serviceability, the load-bearing capacity as well as the fatigue strength of the sandwich plate is presented.

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Fire resistance of cold-formed steel columns Steel Construction 3/2016 190 Completed Phd theses

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Simon, Pavel; Hrdlicka, Libor; Dráb, Ales; Zverina, Vojtech A composite dowel bridge in the Czech Republic - Development, optimization and implementation of a railway bridge Steel Construction 3/2016 191-199 Articles

Kurzfassung

The floods in the Czech Republic in the last few decades have resulted in a significant number of bridges having to be rebuilt. Unfortunately, the work meant long-term traffic closures for railway bridges, coupled with significant costs for renovation and for providing alternative transport services. As a result, the minimum clear headroom above the design flood level required for new bridges and for reconstructing existing bridges has been increased. This initiated a search for new approaches to designing individual parts of bridge crossings, aiming to comply with the stricter conditions. The research aims to decrease costs in comparison with the costs of raising the finished grade level of the railway, especially at places where adjacent sections such as railway stations etc. are connected.

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Berthellemy, Jacques; Schavits, David; Erre, Charlotte Crossing motorways under traffic without intermediate piers Steel Construction 3/2016 200-206 Articles

Kurzfassung

The European research programme SBRI attempted to reveal the costs caused during the service life of a bridge - direct costs for the bridge owner as well as indirect costs for users. The principal results of SBRI should make it possible to take better account of the true costs of a central pier by considering the risks in the construction phase and those that may threaten the highway overpass during its service life.
CEREMA has developed two economic solutions to reach the objective of avoiding the central pier:
1) The solution implemented at Ko Wé Kara in New Caledonia is a steel-concrete composite tied arch bridge with innovative and economic details:
- innovative radial hangers made of welded plates, and
- innovative reinforcement against accidental impact of over-height vehicles.
2) One other possible solution is the composite steel-concrete gantry bridge. The European research programme PRECOBEAM allowed the use of tests and experimental projects to finalize a new system of connection to lower the cost of this type of structure: a strip along which the cutting line of the steel dowels is made in a clothoid shape (CL), which improves the fatigue resistance. CEREMA introduced this innovation in its research programme.
A composite structure can take various forms. It can associate, for instance, the steel web of a beam directly with a concrete flange. It can also constitute a composite deck with a bottom plate stiffened by connecting CL-shape indented strips. An outstanding project of this type in New Caledonia is described in detail. Of course, this type of bridge is an integral bridge and the article includes some recommendations for the design and construction of integral bridges.

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HISTWIN_PLUS Steel Construction 3/2016 206 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Dias, Vincent; Odenbreit, Christoph Investigation of hybrid steel-glass beams with adhesive silicone shear connection Steel Construction 3/2016 207-221 Articles

Kurzfassung

Glass is used in current construction applications mostly as a façade element, its structural role being only rarely exploited, despite its significant resistance to in-plane compression. A steel-glass composite beam was built to investigate a hybrid steel-glass assembly and its loadbearing behaviour. To fulfil this objective, the existing types of steel-glass connection were evaluated, which allowed the possibilities offered by adhesive jointing to be highlighted. The selection of the adhesive, detailed in the present article, constituted a crucial aspect. An excessively soft connection does not transfer the shear loads between the glass and steel adherends, whereas an excessively stiff connection leads to failure of the glass. A two-component structural silicone was chosen and its properties were assessed with the help of an intensive test programme. As a result of this programme, a new quasi-incompressible hyperelastic material law was developed in order to represent the silicone elastomer behaviour. Numerical simulations were conducted in parallel to large-scale four-point bending tests on the adhesively bonded steel-glass composite beams. The aims were, on the one hand, to assess the bending stiffness of the steel-glass composite beam and, on the other, to validate the numerical simulations to conduct parametric studies.

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Steau, Edward; Keerthan, Poologanathan; Mahendran, Mahen Web crippling capacities of rivet fastened rectangular hollow flange channel beams under one flange load cases Steel Construction 3/2016 222-239 Articles

Kurzfassung

A new rivet fastened rectangular hollow flange channel beam (RHFCB) was proposed using an intermittently rivet fastening process as an alternative to welded beams. The rivet fastened RHFCB allows greater section optimisation and flexibility in designing suitable combinations of web and flange widths and thicknesses for many industrial applications. In the industrial applications of rivet fastened RHFCBs as flooring, roofing or modular building systems, their flanges will be fastened to supports, which will provide increased capacities. However no research has been conducted to investigate the web crippling capacities of RHFCBs with flanges unfastened and fastened to supports under one-flange load cases. Similarly the applicability of current design rules for cold-formed steel sections are not suitable for rivet fastened RHFCBs. Hence to address these issues, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the web crippling behaviour and capacities of RHFCBs based on the new AISI S909 standard test method. This study included rivet fastened RHFCBs with flanges unfastened and fastened to supports under End One Flange (EOF) and Interior One Flange (IOF) load cases. Tests with flanges fastened to supports showed that web crippling capacities increased by 39 and 5 % for EOF and IOF load cases. Comparisons of experimental web crippling capacity results with predictions using the current AS/NZS 4600 and AISI S100 design standards showed that web crippling design equations are conservative for rivet fastened RHFCBs with flanges unfastened and fastened to supports under EOF and IOF load cases. Hence new equations are proposed to determine the web crippling capacities of rivet fastened RHFCBs. This paper presents the details of this web crippling experimental study of rivet fastened RHFCB sections and the results.

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Mirambell, Enrique; Bordallo, Jordi; Real, Esther Torsion and its interaction with other internal forces in EN 1993-1-1 - a new approach Steel Construction 3/2016 240-248 Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper presents and clarifies the treatments included in EN 1993-1-1 [1] relating to checking the resistance of steel cross-sections under torsion and its interaction with other internal forces. Specifically, the origin of the formulations for shear-torsion interaction, which has not been found in the literature, is presented. Furthermore, a very simple formulation based on the expressions used for shear-torsion interaction is developed in order to take into account bending-warping torsion interaction for symmetrical I-sections (IP and HE steel profiles). Such a formulation overcomes the overly conservative approach given in EN 1993-1-1 [1] for class 1 and class 2 cross-sections (plastic and compact cross-sections). Finally, a rigorous method for determining the bending resistance of cross-sections is proposed considering the interaction with shear and torsion. The proposal is well suited to the concept of cross-section class and is perfectly consistent with the approaches set out to consider bending-shear and bending-warping torsion interactions.

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Helbig, Thorsten; Riederer, Jochen; Kamp, Florian; Oppe, Matthias Free-form on every scale - "Tornado" roof structure for Bory Mall, Bratislava, Slovakia Steel Construction 3/2016 249-354 Reports

Kurzfassung

The Bory Mall Shopping Centre, designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas, is a mixed use development located on the outskirts of Bratislava, Slovakia.
The roof to the shopping mall's central plaza is a free-form steel gridshell. The concept for its shape is consistent from the footprint to the shape of the grid nodes. The gridshell is assembled from standard rolled steel hollow sections but uses the freedom created by individually shaped CNC-milled grid nodes to achieve a smooth transition between high slenderness at the bottom and the necessary stiffness at the top.
Working in close collaboration with Massimiliano Fuksas Architects, Knippers Helbig provided support for the development of the roof structure right from the start of the project and rounded off their services by providing detailed design of the free-form central “Tornado” façade grid nodes, which were fabricated and built by Metal Yapi.

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World Steel in Figures 2016 is available Steel Construction 3/2016 254 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Schueremans, Luc; Furtado, Ana Claudia FRISOMAT - steel innovator in cold-rolled buildings Steel Construction 3/2016 255-258 Reports

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Euro Space Center at Libin-Transinne Steel Construction 3/2016 258 News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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ECCS news: Steel Construction 3/2016 Steel Construction 3/2016 259-263 ECCS news

Kurzfassung


Events:
The Pacific Structural Steel Conference 2016 / WINERCOST'17 /P Eurosteel 2017

Announcements: In Memoriam / Numerous reaction and testimonies have been received / Steel Construction Day 2016 in Belgium / Steel Construction Day 2016 in Norway
Technical Committees (TC) activities

TC news: Activities of ECCS TC6 „Fatigue and Fracture” / News from ECCS-TC 11 „Composite Structures” / Annex A - Membership / News from ECCS TC16 „Wind Energy Support Structures”

Other ECCS news: ECCS Meeting 2016 / EUROPEAN STEEL BRIDGES AWARDS CEREMONY

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Announcements: Steel Construction 3/2016 Steel Construction 3/2016 264 Announcements

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Contents: Structural Concrete 3/2016 Structural Concrete 3/2016 Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Hordijk, Dick Old and new meet at the 2017 Maastricht fib Symposium! Structural Concrete 3/2016 307-308 Editorials

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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von Greve-Dierfeld, Stefanie; Gehlen, Christoph Performance based durability design, carbonation part 1 - Benchmarking of European present design rules Structural Concrete 3/2016 309-328 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The paper reports on a benchmark of European deemed-to-satisfy rules for exposure class XC (carbonation exposed structural members). The benchmark of the descriptive rules was carried out following the probabilistic design approach for carbonation-induced corrosion developed in [1] and adopted in fib bulletin 34: Model Code for Service Life Design (2006) [2] and fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 [3], respectively. To perform a representative study, three groups of European countries were selected, representing different parts of Europe, south (Spain, Portugal), middle (Netherlands, Great Britain and Germany) and northern Europe (Denmark, Norway). Reliability ranges for carbonation-induced depassivation of rebar were calculated for “favourable” and “unfavourable” design situations in exposure classes XC2, XC3 and XC4 [4]. In each design situation the deemed-to-satisfy rules of selected countries were followed. The probabilistic calculations were mainly based on short-term carbonation data. However, some calculations were also based on long-term observation. The latter was implemented for independent validation purposes. The calculated reliability ranges are very broad and in some “unfavourable” situations, the deemed-to satisfy requirements do not guarantee the required limit state (LS) arget reliabilities for the particular exposure. In “favourable” situations less stringent demands would have been sufficient.

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Gehlen, Christoph; Osterminski, Kai; Weirich, Tim High-cycle fatigue behaviour of reinforcing steel under the effect of ongoing corrosion Structural Concrete 3/2016 329-337 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper presents the results of the corrosion fatigue behaviour of profiled reinforcing steel bars. Cyclically loaded rebar was simultaneously exposed to different corrosive environments - moderate to severe corrosive environments simulating XC or XD/XS exposure. Corrosion was configured naturally without any external polarization. Rebar was exposed to the corrosive solutions either directly or, when embedded in concrete, indirectly. In this latter case, corrosive agents penetrated towards the steel surface through an open crack. Low frequency was applied to enable extended corrosion periods. The potential drop method was utilized to detect and quantify the crack initiation and crack growth of the rebar. Using this method it was possible to determine the ratios between the number of cycles to crack initiation and the cycles to failure. Based on this method, the Nini/NF ratios were almost always between 0.8 and 0.9 - values that are similar to ratios determined for rebar tested in air (reference). This indicates that the fatigue life of rebar in carbonated concrete or concrete containing chloride is strongly dependent on crack initiation and less on crack growth. The S-N curves derived from the corrosion fatigue tests deviate significantly from the curve that was measured during the reference fatigue tests (tests in air). The S-N curves of rebar tested under corrosion fatigue load were linear, with a slope that was much steeper than the slope of the reference rebar tested in air.

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Prudente dos Santos, João Pedro de Oliveira Dias; Crémona, Christian; Campos da Silveira, António Paulo; de Oliveira Martins, Luís Calado Real-time damage detection based on pattern recognition Structural Concrete 3/2016 338-354 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Structural health monitoring (SHM) can be defined as the process of developing and implementing structural damage detection strategies. Ideally, this detection should be carried out in real-time before damage reaches a critical state and impairs structural performance and safety. Hence, it must be based on sensorial systems permanently installed on the target structures and on fully automatic detection methodologies.
The ability to detect damage in real-time is vital for controlling the safety of old structures or for post-retrofitting/post-accident situations, where it might even be mandatory for ensuring a safe service. Under these constraints, SHM systems and strategies must be capable of conducting baseline-free damage identification, i.e. they must not rely on comparing newly acquired data with baseline references in which structures must be assumed as undamaged.
The present paper describes an original strategy for baseline-free damage detection based on the application of artificial neural networks and clustering methods in a moving windows process. The proposed strategy was tested on and validated with numerical and experimental data obtained from a concrete cable-stayed bridge and proved effective for the automatic detection of small stiffness reductions in single stay cables as well as the detachment of neoprene pads in anchoring devices, requiring only a small number of inexpensive sensors.

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Zhao, Yuxi; Zhang, Dawei; Shen, Shijun; Ueda, Tamon Axial loading capacity of concrete-jacketed RC columns with pre- and post-corrosion damage Structural Concrete 3/2016 355-364 Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pre- and post-jacketing corrosion and loading damage on concrete-jacketed reinforced concrete (RC) columns under uniaxial loading and to develop a methodology for predicting the corresponding compressive strength. The pre- and post-damage involved preloading up to 50 % of the peak load of the core column, an electrochemical process to accelerate the migration of chlorides from an external electrolyte into the test columns and a wetting-drying cycle process with a controlled current to speed up the corrosion of the steel reinforcing bars in the test columns. Uniaxial loading tests were performed to determine the structural performance of the concrete-jacketed columns with and without corrosion damage. The failure mode and load-displacement and load-strain responses of the test columns were recorded, and the related mechanisms are discussed. A model capable of evaluating the compressive strength of unjacketed or jacketed RC columns with and without corrosion damage was then developed. The analytical approach considered the effect of reinforcement corrosion on the effective loadbearing area of the concrete and the confinement effect of the stirrups. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results, indicating the reliability and effectiveness of the models developed.

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