Reconnecting the City

Bandarin, Francesco / van Oers, Ron (eds.)

Reconnecting the City

The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage

December 2014
  • 376 pages
  • Softcover
  • English
ISBN: 978-1-118-38398-8
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Table of contents

Acknowledgements xi

Preface xiii

Contributors xix

About the Companion Website xxix

Introduction: Urban Conservation and the End of Planning 1

Francesco Bandarin

Post-War Attempts to Reconnect the City 3

Contemporary Views on Urbanism and Landscape 7

Repositioning Urban Conservation, Reconnecting the City 11

SECTION 1 The Layered Dimension of Urban Conservation 17

1. Archaeology: Reading the City through Time 19

Tim Williams

Introduction 19

Problems and Issues 21

Challenges to Presenting Archaeological Sites in Modern Urban Landscapes 25

Preservation in situ and Mitigation Strategies 30

Approaches and Potential 35

Archaeological Knowledge and Its Potential Impact on Urban Communities 37

Conclusion 44

2. How Geology Shapes Human Settlements 47

Claudio Margottini and Daniele Spizzichino

Introduction 47

Clay-Based Human Settlements 49

Soft Rock-Based Human Settlements 59

Hard Rock-Based Human Settlements 67

Time Variability and Complex Urban Environments 79

Conclusions 84

3. Morphology as the Study of City Form and Layering 85

Stefano Bianca

Introduction 85

Origins and Implications of the Term Morphology 86

The Scope of Urban Morphology 87

Methodology and Procedures 88

Advantages and Problems of the Urban Morphology Approach 94

Relevance within the Historic Urban Landscape Concept 98

Interview - Searching for a Chinese Approach to Urban Conservation 103

Wang Shu

Case Study - Bologna: From Urban Restoration to Urban Rehabilitation 107

Patrizia Gabellini

4. Historic Cities and Climate Change 113

Anthony Gad Bigio

The Emerging Challenges 113

Exposure of World Heritage Cities to Multiple Hazards 115

Historic Cities and Urban Resilience 119

Historic Cities and Climate Change Mitigation 121

Historic Cities and Climate Action Plans: The Case of Edinburgh, Scotland 122

Risks 123

Actions 123

Interview - Looking at the Challenges of the Urban Century 126

Filipe Duarte Santos

5. The Intangible Dimension of Urban Heritage 129

Rohit Jigyasu

Introduction 129

Defining Intangible Values in Historic Urban Landscapes 130

Urbanisation Processes and Impacts on Intangible Values 135

Recognition of Intangible Values in Existing Urban Management Systems 136

Documentation and Impact Assessment of Intangible Heritage Values 138

'Heritage' - Elitist or Inclusive? 139

Role of Intangible Heritage in Building Disaster Resilience of Cities 142

Integrating Intangible Heritage Values in Urban Planning and Management 142

Mainstreaming Intangible Heritage Through Sustainable Livelihoods and Cultural Tourism 143

Redefining the Role of Professionals 144

Interview - Interpreting Cultural Landscapes as Expressions of Local Identity 145

Lisa Prosper

Case Study - The Traditional Chinese View of Nature and Challenges of Urban Development 148

Feng Han

6. Planning and Managing Historic Urban Landscapes 161

Francesco Siravo

Integrated Planning 161

Key Aspects of Analysing and Planning Historic Urban Landscapes 163

Governance: The Case for Public Management in Historic Urban Areas 168

What Kind of Public Institution? 169

Organisational Framework of the Conservation Agency 170

Participatory Planning and Implementation Strategies 171

Conclusion 172

Interview - The Challenge of Urban Transformation 176

Mohsen Mostafavi

7. Cities as Cultural Landscapes 179

Ken Taylor

Reflections 179

A Paradigm Shift 180

The Cultural Landscape Model: Landscape as History and Expression of

Human Values and Identity 183

Bangkok and the Chao Phraya River 186

Canberra 187

Cultural Landscape Characteristics 187

Urban Identity, Plurality, Sustainable Development Tools for Urban Landscape Planning and Conservation Practice 190

Tools 192

Conclusion 202

SECTION 2 Building the Toolkit 203

8. Evolution of the Normative Framework 205

Jukka Jokilehto

Introduction 205

Early Appreciation of Historic Townscape 205

The Development and Impact of Modern City Planning 206

Development of Instruments for Urban Conservation 209

International Recognition of Historic Urban Areas 211

How Normative Frameworks Respond to the Challenges of Change

Caused by Urban Development 213

New Tools for the Management of the Historic Urban Landscape 216

9. Civic Engagement Tools for Urban Conservation 221

Julian Smith

Introduction 221

Ways of Seeing 222

Cultural Mapping 224

The Concepts of Equilibrium and Resilience 226

Sustainable Diversity 229

Influences of Civic Engagement: Towards Community-Based Design and Development 231

Conclusion 235

Interview - Listening to the People, Promoting Quality of Life 240

His Highness the Aga Khan

Case Study - Valuing Cultural Diversity 245

Richard A. Engelhardt

10. Knowledge and Planning Tools 249

Jyoti Hosagrahar

Introduction 249

Mapping, Measuring, and Visualising the Urban Landscape 250

Reading and Interpreting the Urban Landscape 251

Protecting, Enhancing, and Improving the Urban Landscape 257

Traditional and Customary Systems of Management 260

Contextualising the Historic Urban Landscape Approach 260

Case Study - Reading the City of Tokyo 261

Hidenobu Jinnai

11. The Role of Regulatory Systems 269

Patricia O'Donnell

Defining Regulatory Systems 269

Legal Regulations Directly Addressing Public and Private Lands 270

Legal Regulations with Indirect Infl uence on Urban Heritage 275

Conclusion 278

Interview - Constructing Cultural Significance 279

Rahul Mehrotra

12. Devising Financial Tools for Urban Conservation 283

Donovan Rypkema

Introduction 283

Why are Financial Tools Required? 284

What Do Financial Tools Do? 286

What are the Characteristics of the Most Effective Financial Tools? 287

What are Some Examples of Financial Tools and How Do They Work? 288

Conclusion 290

Case Study - A User's Guide for Heritage Economics 291

Christian Ost

Case study - The World Bank's Tools for Urban Conservation 297

MV Serra

13. Researching and Mapping the Historic Urban Landscape 301

Michael Turner and Rachel Singer

Introduction 301

The Diverse City 303

Methodologies and Tools 305

The Role of University Research 309

The Role of UNESCO Chairs 310

The Role of Category 2 Centres (C2C) 310

Conclusion 311

Interview - Heritage and the Metropolis 313

Rem Koolhaas

Conclusion: The Way Forward: An Agenda for Reconnecting the City 317

Ron van Oers

Managing the City as a Living Heritage 317

Identity and Sense of Place 318

Local Heritage and Corporate Image 319

The City as Repository of Urban Experiences 321

Integrating Disciplines and Professional Practices 322

Future Challenges of Urban Conservation 324

The Critical Path: Historic Urban Landscape Action Plan 326

Historic Urban Landscape: A Stepped Approach 326

Interdisciplinary Context and Operational Coordination 328

A 20-Point Research Agenda for Planners and Designers 329

Index 333


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