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Mietz, Jürgen; Burkert, AndreasRegelwerke für die Werkstoffauswahl und Dauerhaftigkeit von nichtrostenden Stählen für Stahlbauten - Entwicklung und aktueller StandStahlbau3/2017279-286Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Eine der wesentlichsten Veränderungen der im Oktober 2015 erschienenen Neufassung der DIN EN 1993-1-4 findet sich im Anhang A “Werkstoffauswahl und Dauerhaftigkeit”. Im Gegensatz zur Vorgängerversion ist dieser Anhang jetzt normativ. Mit Hilfe eines Punktesystems, das die wichtigsten Einwirkungsparameter der relevanten Expositionsbedingungen berücksichtigt, wird eine Korrosionsbeständigkeitsklasse ermittelt, mit deren Hilfe man eine geeignete Legierung auswählen kann. Dieses Verfahren bietet eine zuverlässige Methode für Planer auch ohne spezielle Kenntnisse auf dem Gebiet der Korrosion bzw. der nichtrostenden Stähle. Die Arbeit geht auch auf Unterschiede sowie Gemeinsamkeiten mit der bisher in Deutschland gültigen allgemeinen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassung Z-30.3.6 ein.

Technical regulations for the selection of materials and durability for steel structures - Development and current status.
One of the most important changes of the revised DIN EN 1993-1-4 released in October 2015 can be found in the annex section A “Selection of materials and durability”. Contrary to the previous version this annex is now normative. By means of a point system considering different key variables that influence the selection of stainless steel alloys and combines values for each to give a total corrosion resistance factor suitable alloys can be selected. The annex aims to provide a methodology for use by designers with no specialist knowledge of either corrosion or stainless steels. The paper also discusses differences and similarities with the previous valid German national technical approval Z-30.3.6.

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Kahlow, Andreas"Mit den wohlfeilsten Mitteln dauerhaft, feuersicher und bequem" - Sparsamkeit als Prinzip, Rationalität als Weltsicht?Stahlbau3/2017286Aktuell

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Möller, EberhardSehenswerte Baukultur - BIG structures and best high-risesStahlbau3/2017287-289Berichte

Kurzfassung

Gleich zwei für Ingenieure interessante Ausstellungen präsentierte das Deutsche Architekturmuseum (DAM) um den Jahreswechsel 2016/17 in Frankfurt am Main. Eine der beiden widmete sich herausragenden Hochhäusern, die andere einem Team äußerst kreativer Planer, der dänischen Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG). Zwischen beiden Ausstellungen besteht - vielleicht nicht ganz zufällig - ein Zusammenhang.

Culture in engineering - BIG structures and best high-rises.
The Deutsche Architekturmuseum (DAM) presented two interesting exhibitions at the turn of the year 2016/17 in Frankfurt am Main. One of the two was about outstanding high-rise buildings, the other about a team of extremely creative planners - the Danish Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG). There is a connection between the two exhibitions - perhaps not quite accidentally.

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Brux, GuntherZur Grundinstandsetzung der KöhlbrandbrückeStahlbau3/2017289-290Berichte

Kurzfassung

Seit über 40 Jahren verbindet die Köhlbrandbrücke im ehemaligen Freihafen des Hamburger Hafens die Elbinsel Wilhelmsburg mit der Autobahn A7. Die Brückenkonstruktion nach einem Entwurf des Bauingenieurs Paul Boué und des Architekten Egon Jux überspannt einen 325 m breiten Arm der Südelbe, den sogenannten Köhlbrand. Dank ihrer 135 m hohen Pylone ist die Köhlbrandbrücke schon von Weitem sichtbar und gilt nach den 1970er Jahren als eines der Wahrzeichen der Hansestadt Hamburg. Mit 3 618 m ist die Brücke die zweitlängste Straßenbrücke Deutschlands (Bild 1).
Das Gesamtbauwerk umfasst zwei Rampenbrücken aus Spannbeton sowie die 520 m lange Strombrücke, die als Schrägseilbrücke in Stahl ausgeführt ist. 88 Stahlseile sind fächerförmig am äußeren Brückenkasten sowie an den Pylonen befestigt. Der Brückenträger besteht aus einem Stahlhohlkasten mit einer rund 17 m breiten Fahrbahnplatte.

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Lösung und Gewinner der Weihnachtspreisaufgabe 2016Stahlbau3/2017291-297Berichte

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Persönliches: Stahlbau 3/2017Stahlbau3/2017298-299Persönliches

Kurzfassung

József Farkas verstorben
Ömer Bucak 70 Jahre

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Deutscher Verzinkerpreis für Architektur und MetallgestaltungStahlbau3/2017299Aktuell

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Termine: Stahlbau 3/2017Stahlbau3/2017299-300Termine

Kurzfassung

Dresdner Stahlbaufachtagung 2017 Stahl- und Verbundbaukonstruktionen für den Neubau und das Bauen im Bestand
Erdbeben im Anlagenbau - International und National
Korrosionsschutz im Stahlbau in Verbindung mit der WPK nach DIN EN 1090-1
Österreichischer Stahlbautag
Braunschweiger Brandschutz-Tage 2017
Eurosteel 2017
3rd International Symposium on Connections between Steel and Concrete
Vortragsreihe baupraxis Ausgewählte Themen aus dem Bauwesen

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Content: Steel Construction 3/2017Steel Construction3/2017Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Jönsson, JeppeEurosteel 2017 Copenhagen - The 8th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures 13-15 September 2017Steel Construction3/2017199Editorials

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Jensen, Jakob Laigaard; Lambertsen, Jens; Zinck, Morten; Stefansson, EinarChallenges of water ingress into bridge cable systemsSteel Construction3/2017200-206Articles

Kurzfassung

Experience with the operation and maintenance of cable-borne bridges of various ages over the last 20 years shows that water ingress into steel cable systems often occurs and causes a high risk of serious corrosion that may lead to traffic restrictions, extraordinary inspection and maintenance costs and, in the worst case, bridge closures. Examples of such experience cover suspension bridges as well as cable-stayed bridges in the USA, UK, Germany, France, Argentina, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and many other countries. The problem of water ingress is particularly critical as inspections for corrosion in cable systems are difficult to carry out and early warnings difficult to obtain.
Water ingress into a cable system means that there is a significant risk of steel corrosion even with precautions such as the use of galvanization and HDPE coating of cable wires. Although cable system designs generally comprise multiple barriers against corrosion, there is often a weak link in the design. This, combined with an unintended outcome in the construction phase or inadequate maintenance, may allow water to start accumulating and lead to corrosion.
This paper will explain and discuss cases from main cable and cable-stay systems and point out the water ingress modes and their causes for main cable systems and different cable-stay systems. Based on that, the paper discusses the weaknesses of the different steel cable concepts and different mitigations. The discussion also includes the mitigation of the water ingress problem through the use of dehumidification. This concept has been successfully used for the main cables of suspension bridges for more than 15 years. Considering the number of known problems with water in cable stays, the paper also contemplates the possibility of using dehumidification for cable-stayed bridges as a way of handling the large number of existing cable-stayed bridges.

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Ichinose, Luiza Hiroko; Koyama, Masahiro; Sakano, MasahiroEffectiveness of fatigue retrofits to transverse beam and sway bracing connections in steel bridgesSteel Construction3/2017207-215Articles

Kurzfassung

A great number of fatigue cracks have been found in the welded joints at the top end of web gap plates in the transverse beam connection, at the top end of vertical stiffeners in the sway bracing connection, and at the web penetrations with the transverse beam bottom flange.
The present paper is a report on the verification of the effectiveness of 3 new types of retrofit methods proposed against those fatigue crackings. Stress measurements were carried out before and after retrofit works in a 45 years old bridge located in one of the heaviest traffic routes in Japan. As a result, fatigue life was considerably improved after the retrofit works, except for the case of vertical stiffener upper end retrofitted by the jack-up method. Fatigue life was improved to more than a several times by the TRS method for the vertical stiffener upper end and web gap, and to more than tens of times at the girder web slot area after retrofitting.

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Fajuyitan, O. Kunle; Sadowski, Adam J.; Wadee, M. AhmerBuckling of very short elastic cylinders with weld imperfections under uniform bendingSteel Construction3/2017216-221Articles

Kurzfassung

The length-dependent behaviour domains of thin elastic cylindrical shells under uniform bending have recently received significant research attention. Ovalization is known to affect very long cylinders that undergo significant cross-sectional flattening before failing by local buckling. This effect is restrained by the end boundary conditions in shorter cylinders, which instead fail by local buckling at moments close to the classical analytical prediction. In very short cylinders, however, even this local buckling is restrained by the end boundary, and failure occurs instead through the development of a destabilizing meridional fold on the compressed side. Although this is a limit point instability under bending, ovalization does not play any role at all. This 'very short' length domain has only recently been explored for the first time with the aid of finite element modelling.
A brief overview of the non-linear buckling behaviour of very short elastic cylinders under uniform bending is presented in this paper. Two types of edge rotational restraint are used to illustrate the influence of a varying support condition on the stability in this short length range. It is shown that short cylinders under bending do not suffer at all from local short-wave buckling. Additionally, when the meridional dimension of such cylinders becomes particularly short, the resulting numerical models may predict indefinite stiffening without a limit point, even when the shell is modelled using more complete 3D solid continuum finite elements. Idealized weld depressions, which are realistic representations of a systemic manufacturing defect, are used to demonstrate only a very mild sensitivity to geometric imperfections at such short lengths owing to a pre-buckling stress state dominated by local compatibility bending. The topic should be of interest to researchers studying shell problems dominated by local bending with computational tools and designers of multi-segment shells with very close segment spacing.

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Bräutigam, Katharina; Knoedel, Peter; Ummenhofer, ThomasPlastic behaviour of polygonal hollow sections in bendingSteel Construction3/2017222-226Articles

Kurzfassung

Steel poles made from polygonal sections are an economic alternative to circular hollow sections for use as lighting towers or transmission line pylons. For transmission lines especially, the intention behind the design of the poles is to make them more compact in order to avoid land usage and achieve an inconspicuous appearance. If the pole diameter is reduced, the slenderness of the sections needs to be reduced as well in order to achieve the desired resistance, but increasing the wall thickness disproportionately reduces the cost-effectiveness of the structure. The European design rules for overhead electrical lines [1] do not allow plastic behaviour of stocky sections to be used, which reduces the advantages of compact sections.
In modern standards for steel structures, such as Eurocode 3 (EC3) [2], activating plastic reserves is generally acknowledged as state of the art. According to EC3-1-1, the slenderness of the section determines whether the cross-section is allocated to class 1 or 2, where plastic design is allowed, class 3, where only elastic behaviour is used, or class 4, where local buckling is assumed. When changing from class 2 to class 3 sections, EC3-1-1 prescribes a sudden drop in resistance, which has long been recognized as unjustified. Research has been done to overcome this mismatch for circular hollow sections [3].
In this paper the transition between the plastic bending moment capacity and the limit state of buckling is investigated in order to identify the ultimate load of polygonal sections. The 16-sided polygon investigated can be treated as a collection of plate strips using the plate buckling design rules of EC3-1-5 for class 4 cross-sections. Detailed examinations illustrate the inconsistency of EC3 when it comes to the bending capacity of compact sections even before the start of stability problems.
Numerical investigations have been performed on the basis of experimental data gained from full-scale bending tests, along with imperfection measurements via laser scanning. These results suggest that the bending moment capacity can be increased beyond the calculated elastic capacity for more compact sections, but might be overestimated when calculating the full plastic capacity according to EC3-1-1.

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Announcements: Steel Construction 3/2017Steel Construction3/2017226Announcements

Kurzfassung

Post-buckling Strength of Plate Girders subjected to Shear

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Nguyen, Van Vinh; Hancock, Gregory J.; Pham, Cao HungNew developments in the direct strength method (DSM) for the design of cold-formed steel sections under localised loadingSteel Construction3/2017227-233Articles

Kurzfassung

A consistent and simplified direct strength method (DSM) is proposed for the design of cold-formed (or thin-walled) sections under localized loading, which is called web crippling. The development of this method proposes generalized equations for the design of thin-walled sections under the four different localized load cases: interior one-flange (IOF), end one-flange (EOF), interior two-flange (ITF) and end two-flange (ETF). The same parameters are used in the DSM equations for both the IOF and the EOF load cases. However, the ITF and ETF load cases require different parameters in the DSM equations to predict the capacities of structural members. The equations contain both an inelastic reserve component and a yield load component which are different from those proposed previously in this regard.
This paper briefly introduces the calculation of the buckling load and the yield load. From these two main input variables, DSM equations are used to determine the capacities of structural members under localized loading. Calibration was performed against all available experimental data to validate the accuracy of the DSM predictions.

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Christensen, Rasmus Magdal; Nielsen, Mogens Gunhard; Støttrup-Andersen, UlrikEffective vibration dampers for masts, towers and chimneysSteel Construction3/2017234-240Articles

Kurzfassung

Slender steel structures such as masts and towers consisting of or supporting cylindrical elements or chimneys can be susceptible to vortex shedding. Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) can occur in slender structures because a fluctuating cross-wind force is generated from vortices shed alternately from opposite sides of the structure. Significant VIV occur when the frequency of the vortex shedding is the same as the natural frequency of the structure. If the critical wind speed for VIV often occurs for a structure and the vibration amplitudes caused by the VIV are critical with respect to fatigue, the result can be failure of the structure. An effective method of damping the vibrations can be to install a tuned liquid sloshing damper (TLSD). This paper focuses on the design of a TLSD and compares this with the tuned mass damper (TMD) solution.
Compared with the fabrication and installation of a TMD, it is much simpler to make a container and fill it with liquid. The container is often made as a square box or a cylinder that is easily mounted at the top of a mast, tower or chimney, thus providing the most efficient damping of the critical vibration mode. A TLSD is also preferred when it comes to maintenance as only the liquid level has to be checked, whereas a TMD needs maintenance and possibly repair or even replacement of damper parts.
A TLSD is designed by calculating the dimensions that will result in a mode shape of the sloshing liquid with a frequency close to the natural frequency of the structure that is to be damped. As the liquid moves in the container, so the sloshing energy of the water reduces the dynamic response of the structure subjected to VIV. Experiments have shown that the TLSD has a rather broadband efficiency and also that it is effective with sloshing liquid mass values down to < 1 % of the effective mass of the mode it is designed to damp.
Ramboll has experience with the design of both types of dampers, TMD and TLSD, for broadcast masts and towers and for chimneys. In particular, at a broadcast tower in Norway where a TMD has been replaced by a TLSD, Ramboll has tested the efficiency of the TLSD for comparison with the TMD replaced. This paper will present these results and give an introduction to TSLD design.

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Grimsmo, Erik L.; Aalberg, Arne; Langseth, Magnus; Clausen, Arild H.How placement of nut determines failure mode of bolt-and-nut assembliesSteel Construction3/2017241-247Articles

Kurzfassung

Bolt-and-nut assemblies under tension loading can either fail by bolt fracture or thread failure. The latter failure mode is arguably undesirable because it leads to failure at a comparatively low deformation level. Moreover, incipient thread failure is challenging to detect in the case of over-tightening since the bolt remains in the bolt hole after this type of failure occurs. The failure mode of bolt-and-nut assemblies is determined by several well-known factors such as the thread engagement length and the relative strength of bolt and nut. However, one factor that has received limited attention in the literature is the placement of the nut along the threaded portion of the bolt. We have performed a series of direct tension tests on various single M16 bolt-and-nut assemblies where the placement of the nut was varied. Some of the assemblies experienced that placing the nut close to the thread run-out, i.e. near the unthreaded portion of the bolt (the shank), led to thread failure, whereas placing the nut sufficiently far from the thread run-out led to bolt fracture. We carried out finite element simulations of the tests in order to investigate further the mechanisms occurring during failure. In the case where the nut was located close to the thread run-out, the simulations revealed that necking of the bolt affected the effective overlap of the internal and external threads. This effect seemed to contribute to thread failure in both tests and simulations.

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Odenbreit, Christoph; Nellinger, SebastianMechanical model to predict the resistance of the shear connection in composite beams with deep steel deckingSteel Construction3/2017248-253Articles

Kurzfassung

The resistance of a typical shear connection with headed shear studs in a composite beam is analysed for the normal case in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The reducing effect of a trapezoidal metal decking to the ultimate loadbearing capacity is considered with empirically derived reduction factors and equations that were developed between the late 1970s and early 1980s. The RFCS research project “DISCCO” [1] investigated the shear stud resistance with novel types of steel decking. In many cases, the shear resistance predicted by EN 1994-1-1 [2] was not reached in tests.
In the respective experiments with composite beams and deep decking, a concrete cone failure mode was identified and not a pure shear failure of the stud. This failure mode acted in combination with the loadbearing capacity of the shear stud, which formed one or two plastic hinges in the shaft depending on the actual geometry.
Based on these observations, new equations have been developed to predict the shear connection's resistance with more accuracy. The yield hinge mechanism of the shear stud, which was developed by Lungershausen [3], was extended by the aforementioned loadbearing component “concrete cone”. The formulae consider the geometry of the stud and the steel decking and the material strength of the stud and the concrete. The statistical evaluation of the equations developed demonstrates good agreement with test results.

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The open-air theatre in Tecklenburg has been refurbishedSteel Construction3/2017253News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Dehan, Véronique; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; D'Agosto, Franck; Duffy, Brendan; Fortini, Andrea; Hilton, Sharon; Krassa, Kalliopi; Keddie, Joseph L.; Koh, Ming L.; Lansalot, Muriel; Lee, Michelle; Lesage de la Haye, Jennifer; Martin-Fabiani, Ignacio; Mantzaridis, Christos; Mazeffa, Douglas P.; Sear, Richard P.; Schulz, Malin; Sibbald, Morgan; Skerry, Brian; Thomas, BrettHigh-performance water-based barrier coatings for the corrosion protection of structural steelSteel Construction3/2017254-259Articles

Kurzfassung

This article provides an overview of the outcomes of a European-funded project called BarrierPlus. A new type of water-based barrier coating was developed for structural steel applications. The advantages of this coating include enhanced moisture resistance, low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one-component self-crosslinking free of isocyanates. To enable this performance, a latex polymer binder was uniquely designed without using soap-like molecules, known as surfactants, to form the dispersion. By minimizing surfactants in the coating, the barrier properties were significantly enhanced. The latex was successfully scaled up to 15 kg quantities by an SME, coating formulations were scaled to pilot quantities and a variety of characterization and coating performance tests were completed. A life cycle assessment found that the BarrierPlus coating has a better environmental profile than an industry benchmark solvent-borne coating and showed promising results relative to commercial waterborne benchmarks.

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ECCS news: Steel Construction 3/2017Steel Construction3/2017261-264ECCS news

Kurzfassung


Events:
Eurosteel 2017
BESTInfra 2017
3rd International Symposium on connections between Steel and Concrete
International Jubilee Scientific Conference “75th Anniversary of UACEG”
XI Conference on Steel and Composite Construction

Announcements: Dutch Steel Day
Sweden Steel Day
Norwegian Steel Day
Czech Steel Day
Luxembourg Steel Day
Danish Steel Day
Finnish Steel Day
Portugal Steel Day

Technical Committees (TC) activities

TC news: TC8 news
TC11 news
TC16 news

Book review: Shear Connections in Composite Flexural Members of Steel and Concrete

Further ECCS news: Obituary - Jürgen Krampen
ECCS engaged in discussions with the EU institutions
Success for the first ECCS training course in Brussels!

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Inhalt: UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft 3/2017UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft3/2017Inhalt

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Schalk, GüntherCompliance - Notwendigkeit oder Modetrend?UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft3/20171Editorials

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Ernst & Sohn (Hrsg.)Gesamtausgabe UBB 3/2017UnternehmerBrief Bauwirtschaft3/20171-24Gesamtausgabe

Kurzfassung

Komplette Monatsausgabe

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