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Lange, JörgKlaus Berner's 75th birthdaySteel Construction4/2016290Peoples

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Arrayago, Itsaso; Real, Esther; Mirambell, EnriqueTests on ferritic stainless steel simply supported and continuous SHS and RHS beamsSteel Construction4/2016291-295Articles

Kurzfassung

Development of efficient design guidance for stainless steel structures (considering non-linear behaviour, strain hardening and allowing for moment redistribution in indeterminate structures) is crucial for the widespread use of this corrosion-resistant material. This paper presents an experimental programme involving ferritic stainless steel simply supported and continuous beams (RHS and SHS) and the assessment of existing cross-sectional classifications and different plastic design methods available in the literature for indeterminate stainless steel structures, not currently allowed in stainless steel standards. The analysis indicated that some cross-sectional classification limits seem to be too optimistic for ferritic stainless steels and further research is needed in order to extend plastic design to these grades.

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Barros dos Santos, Gabriel; de Miranda Batista, Eduardo; de Araújo, Afonso Henrique MascarenhasBehaviour of RHS beam-to-column bolted steel connectionsSteel Construction4/2016296-304Articles

Kurzfassung

The connection concept is a key point in the design of steel structures which affects fabrication, erection procedures and the final costs. Welding processes have been extensively used for tubular trussed girders by combining shop welding with bolted flange solutions to facilitate straightforward connection procedures during erection. The present research addresses the behaviour of innovative beam-to-column bolted connections for steel rectangular hollow sections (RHS) which combine simplicity in fabrication and erection, favourable aesthetics for the case of visible structures and structural effectiveness. Four cruciform prototypes were tested under a static non-reversible bending moment with different bolted conditions: i) non-friction and ii) friction connection. The experimental results show that the proposed geometry with friction connections is able to develop a rigid elastic moment-rotation response up to usual loading conditions.

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Hoang, Van Long; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre; Demonceau, Jean-FrançoisUse of long bolts for beam-to-concrete-filled rectangular hollow section column joints in seismic-resistant framesSteel Construction4/2016305-314Articles

Kurzfassung

The research into a specific type of unstiffened extended end-plate joint used to connect I-shaped beams to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section columns is presented in this paper. The main idea is to use long bolts passing through the column to connect the beam end-plates in order to...
1) avoid intermediate connecting elements (e.g. a reversed channel) or special bolts (e.g. blind bolts), which are sometimes used in practice, and
2) improve the resistance and stiffness of the joint when used in seismic-resistant frames.
Firstly, a test programme was performed within an RFCS European project entitled HSS-SERF “High-Strength Steel in Seismic-resistant Building Frames”, 2009-2013. The test programme included defining specimens subjected to significant bending moments (and shear) or shear only. Analytical models based on the component approach and aimed at predicting the joint response were then proposed; their validity is demonstrated through comparisons with the test results. Finally, the requirements of EN 1998-1-1 related to full-strength resistance for the proposed joint configuration are discussed, accounting for the actual positions of plastic hinges and the possible individual over-strength factors for each component.

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Nizer, Adriano; de Lima, Luciano R. O.; da S. Vellasco, Pedro C. G.; de Andrade, Sebastião A. L.; da S. Goulart, Evandro; da Silva, André T.; da C. Neves, Luis F.Experimental and numerical assessment of RHS T-joints subjected to brace and chord axial forcesSteel Construction4/2016315-322Articles

Kurzfassung

The demand for the use of hollow section structures in construction has experienced great progress in Brazil, despite being widely used for a long time in Europe and developed countries. The release of a Brazilian Technical Standard specifically for the design of hollow sections confirms this trend, together with the need for increased dissemination and implementation of studies and research to enable a better understanding and development of this technology. This paper presents experimental and numerical evaluations of the influence of chord normal stresses on the behaviour of tubular T-joints. The experimental programme consisted of six tests applying compressive loads to the brace. These results were compared with the numerical results obtained from a finite element model simulation performed in ANSYS to extend the results to cases with tension forces on the brace. The results were compared with the design provisions in Eurocode 3, Brazilian standard NBR 16239:2013 and ISO 14346. A new equation for the case where compression loads are applied to the chord for n ≤ -0.5 is therefore proposed, providing better agreement with the experimental and numerical results

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Romero, Manuel L.; Albero, Vicente; Espinós, Ana; Hospitaler, Antonio; Pons, David; Portolés, José M.; Ibañez, CarmenCircular concrete-filled dual steel columns with ultrahigh-strength concreteSteel Construction4/2016323-330Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign in which the buckling resistance of 12 concrete-filled dual steel columns was ascertained. Whereas some papers in the literature describe investigations into concentrically loaded stub columns with such typology, no investigations of slender columns have been found to date. The tests presented in this paper are the preliminary results of an extensive experimental campaign (28 tests) that analysed the effects of two parameters: strength of concrete (normal- and ultrahigh-strength concrete) and the ratio between the thicknesses of the inner and outer steel tubes. A numerical model was also developed and validated, which helps further investigations. The buckling load of the specimens at room temperature is analysed in terms of the strength of the concrete and the appropriate distribution of the steel in the composite column. By maintaining the same total area of steel, two combinations were initially studied: “thick outer tube-thin inner tube” and “thin outer tube-thick inner tube”. Finally, a discussion about the Eurocode 4 simplified method for composite columns, applied to these innovative specimens, is presented and shows unreliable results. Therefore, further tests would be needed to assess accurately the Eurocode 4 simplified method.

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Khador, Majd; Chan, Tak-MingCyclic behaviour of external diaphragm joint to CHS column with built-in replaceable linksSteel Construction4/2016331-338Articles

Kurzfassung

A series of full-scale laboratory experiments was conducted to investigate the cyclic behaviour of an external diaphragm joint between a steel I-beam and a circular hollow section column. The joint incorporated two diaphragm plates (DPs) welded to the column's external wall and bolted to the flanges of the beam using tapered cover plates (TCPs). The joint was designed to limit yielding and plastic hinging of the TCPs while the other joint components remained elastic. This is necessary if the joint is to qualify for use in structures classified in the damage control structural performance range according to FEMA 356. Two parameters of the TCPs are investigated in this paper: steel grade and bolt preload force. The use of higher steel grades was found to impose undesirable higher strain demands on the beam and DPs and dissipate less energy than the joints with the lower grade. A controlled reduction in the bolt preload force allowed connection slippage to occur beyond the serviceability limit, created an additional energy dissipation fuse and allowed rotation of the plastic hinge region to exceed the 25 mrad required for medium ductility class structures.

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Ohyama, Osamu; Rutner, MarcusAkimitsu Kurita turns 70Steel Construction4/2016338Announcements

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Wardenier, Jaap; Packer, Jeffrey; Puthli, Ram; Bijlaard, FransRe-evaluation of the shear criterion for RHS overlap jointsSteel Construction4/2016339-348Articles

Kurzfassung

This paper deals with a proposal to revise the effective width terms in the brace shear criterion for overlap joints in rectangular hollow sections (RHS). The background to the design equations in ISO 14346 for the failure modes, brace effective width, chord M-N interaction and brace shear are described first. That is followed by the relation between overlap joints in circular hollow sections and those in rectangular hollow sections and those with an I- or H-section chord. Finally, it is shown that the effective width terms in the brace shear criterion can - in the case of 100 % overlap joints - be better related to the thickness of the overlapped brace. In the case of smaller overlaps, &lgr;ov, limit ≤ &lgr;ov ≤ 100 %, the effective width should also be related to the thickness of the overlapping brace, where &lgr;ov, limit depends on whether the hidden seam at the toe of the overlapped brace has been welded.

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Lindner, Joachim; Kuhlmann, Ulrike; Just, AdrianVerification of flexural buckling according to Eurocode 3 part 1-1 using bow imperfectionsSteel Construction4/2016349-362Articles

Kurzfassung

The resistance of compression members may be calculated by the design buckling resistance based on the reduction factor &ggr;, which depends on the slenderness, or by the cross-section resistance based on internal forces according to a second-order analysis taking into account equivalent initial bow imperfections as well. The second way is especially advantageous in the case of axial forces and bending. Values for equivalent initial bow imperfections are given in codes such as Eurocode 3 [5] or DIN 18800 [4]. For comparison, initial bow imperfections are derived here from the buckling curves for compression members with different cross-sections, buckling directions and steel grades based on different types of cross-sectional interaction. The results are discussed and commented with regard to the design of compression members. Furthermore, investigations are carried out for cases of axial compression and bending moments My or Mz. Data available from ultimate load calculations are used for comparison. The consequences for the assumed design verification according to second-order theory are discussed and a proposal is presented.

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Helbig, Thorsten; Kamp, Florian; Schieber, Roman; Oppe, Matthias; Torsing, Rob; Kieft, RalphCurved directly glazed steel structure - New departure station, E-Line, The HagueSteel Construction4/2016363-368Reports

Kurzfassung

ZJA Zwarts & Jansma Architects have designed a new light rail departure station in The Hague, The Netherlands. The spatial roof structure of the station is made of rolled steel rectangular hollow sections arranged in two independent layers rigidly connected to each other. A glass envelope covering the roof structure matches the contours of the steel exactly. Since the diamond-shaped glass panes could only be attached to the outer layer of the steel grid, the panes (with edge lengths of approx. 1.30 m) are supported on two sides only. When optimizing the overall geometry, the double-curvature area at the nose of the roof structure became a special focus. Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering has managed to minimize the deviation of each single glass pane from the single-curvature geometry to a maximum out-of-plane deformation of only 3 mm. Therefore, the project is a great example of how geometry development can influence structural design and enable new approaches.

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New website launch "Construction Histories Brussels"Steel Construction4/2016368News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Kurrer, Karl-EugenGeometry and Mechanics of Historic Structures. Von J. HeymanSteel Construction4/2016369Book reviews

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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ECCS news: Steel Construction 4/2016Steel Construction4/2016369-372ECCS news

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Nüsse, GregorDeveloping a high quality sandwich-panel envelope-system for office and multi-storey buildings (P 977)Steel Construction4/2016372News

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Announcements: Steel Construction 4/2016Steel Construction4/2016372Announcements

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Contents: Structural Concrete 4/2016Structural Concrete4/2016Contents

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Doniak, Íria Lícia OlivaLocal and global integration for a sustainable futureStructural Concrete4/2016520-521Editorials

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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von Greve-Dierfeld, Stefanie; Gehlen, ChristophPerformance-based durability design, carbonation part 2 - Classification of concreteStructural Concrete4/2016523-532Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

At present, prescriptive regulations with regard to concrete cover and composition are applied to provide sufficient durability of reinforced concrete members under exposure conditions with different degrees of severity. In view of current knowledge on deterioration mechanisms and their modelling, it is planned to change from these deemed-to-satisfy specifications to a performance-based design approach in future standards. In such specifications, concrete durability design is based on the statistically characterized performance of concrete, determined in standardized tests with respect to defined classes of concretes with similar performance.
This paper presents the results of a study in which concrete mixes were tested and analysed with respect to their carbonation resistance. Compositions with similar performance are grouped into carbonation resistance classes. These classes are described statistically and requirements for performance testing are given. In addition, composition requirements are introduced in order to determine concrete performance depending on mix composition prescriptively. Finally, an example is given for the assessment of concrete performance with regard to carbonation.
This work was carried out at the request of JWG under CEN TC 250/SC2 and CEN TC 104/SC1 as an input and starting point for the ongoing committee work to implement the methodology from the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 in the next generation (2021) of European concrete standards.

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Andrade, Carmen; Cesetti, Alessandro; Mancini, Giuseppe; Tondolo, FrancescoEstimating corrosion attack in reinforced concrete by means of crack openingStructural Concrete4/2016533-540Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The corrosion of reinforcement in concrete is the most common degradation phenomenon of reinforced concrete structures. Reinforced concrete elements subjected to corrosion generally crack due to the expansive nature of oxides. One very important task is estimating the corrosion level using a non-destructive method in order to establish both the actual safety of the structure and a priority intervention plan.
Many researchers have studied the relationship between the corrosion phenomenon and the corresponding crack openings and their evolution; several statistical analyses, based on test data from experimental campaigns under a wide range of test conditions, are available.
The present work attempts to contribute to finding a relationship between the crack opening and the amount of corrosion induced in the reinforcing bars. The result of the analysis is that only a reduced number of tests can be used to establish an empirical model based on a reliable set of test data. A simple relationship between crack opening and corrosion penetration is not recommended, due to the different parameters that are able to influence this correlation. Therefore, two fundamental parameters, the ratio of the concrete cover to the rebar diameter and the concrete strength, have also been considered. The considerations made regarding these parameter test results have been rearranged and the result is a formulation that shows reduced scatter.

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Hussein, Luaay; Amleh, LamyaAnalytical modelling of bond stress at steel-concrete interface due to corrosionStructural Concrete4/2016541-552Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

An analytical model is proposed for bond stresses at the corroded steel-concrete interface in reinforced concrete. The concrete around the corroded bar is modelled as a thick-walled cylinder - consisting of an inner cylinder of an anisotropic material and an outer cylinder made of an isotropic material - subjected to internal pressure exerted by the growth of corrosion products on the concrete wall at the interface. A frictional model is used to combine the action of confining pressure due to radial pressure produced by principal bar ribs and the pressure resulting from expansion of corrosion products. The analysis results using the proposed model show good agreement with the experimental results of several researchers.

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Zych, MariuszModification of the simplified method of crack control included in EN 1992-3Structural Concrete4/2016553-563Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

The methods of crack control for liquid-retaining RC tank walls are analysed taking into account external load (EN 1992-1-1) and imposed strain occurring at the construction stage (EN 1992-3), i.e. during the concrete-hardening period. The convergence ranges of the simplified method of crack control included in EN 1992-3 and the detailed calculation methods included in EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-3 are defined. Apart from the compatibility areas, overestimation of the acceptable reinforcing bar diameter &phgr;s*, illustrated in Fig. 7.103N in EN 1992-3, was proved. Coefficients k&phgr;1 and k&phgr;2 are defined, which enable the calculation of the acceptable reinforcing bar diameter &phgr;s* in order to obtain the values complying with the direct calculations. For practical purposes, graphs have been plotted to facilitate the definition of coefficients k&phgr;1 and k&phgr;2 without performing direct calculations. On the basis of the analyses performed and the relations proposed, it can be concluded that there is a possibility or a necessity to increase or decrease the acceptable reinforcing bar diameter &phgr;s* depending on the concrete mechanical properties and geometrical properties of an RC tank wall.

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Tian, He; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Chunhui; Ding, YiningRecent advances in experimental studies of the mechanical behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced cementitious compositesStructural Concrete4/2016564-575Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper presents a review of recent research and development work involving natural fibre-reinforced concrete (NFRC). The recent developments in NFRC reinforced with different types of natural fibre, such as sisal fibre, bagasse fibre, coir fibre, banana fibre, eucalyptus fibre, flax fibre, jute fibre and pinus radiate fibre, are covered. Natural fibres and their modification methods are introduced first and the development history of natural fibre-reinforced concrete and the relevant research into the mechanical behaviour of NFRC in both the short- and long-term are reviewed. The applications of NFRC are also summarized.

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irgulis, Giedrius; vec, Old ich; Geiker, Mette Rica; Cwirzen, Andrzej; Kanstad, TerjeVariation in fibre volume and orientation in walls: experimental and numerical investigationsStructural Concrete4/2016576-587Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

Previous research with fibre-reinforced slab elements has shown that the surface roughness of formwork and the presence of rebars affect fibre orientation and fibre volume distribution. This paper discusses the orientation and volume distribution of steel fibres in wall elements cast from a single point. Aparticular focus of the work was the effect of formwork tie ba rs on fibre orientation and distribution. Numerical simulations and X-ray computed tomography were appliedto quantify the fibre orientation and distribution, and the mechanical performance was determined using three-point bending tests on sawn beams. The Thorenfeldt model (applied in the Norwegian proposal for the new fibre-reinforced concrete guideline) was used to estimate the residual flexural tensile strength based on fibre orientation and distribution.
The simulation results show that the fibre orientation can be related to the flow pattern. The results indicate a large variation in fibre orientation, which was confirmedexperimentally. The fibre volume distribution was mostly uniform, except for an area with fewer fibres at the casting point. The large variation in fibre orientation was reflected in a large variation in residual flexural tensile strengths. Weak zones due to anisotropic fibre orientation, caused by formwork tie bars, were observed.

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di Prisco, Marco; Martinelli, Paolo; Parmentier, BenoitOn the reliability of the design approach for FRC structures according to fib Model Code 2010: the case of elevated slabsStructural Concrete4/2016588-602Technical Papers

Kurzfassung

This paper focuses on the reliability of the design approach proposed in the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 for estimating the ultimate capacity of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) elevated slabs on the basis of different tests for material characterization. The fracture properties of the material are determined through three-point bending tests on notched beams and through double edge wedge splitting (DEWS) tests carried out on cylinders cored in the full-size test structure. As a case study, an FRC elevated flat slab 0.2 m thick is considered which consists of nine bays (panels) measuring 6 × 6 m (overall size 18.3 × 18.3 m) and is supported by 16 circular concrete columns. The ultimate bearing capacity of the slab determined experimentally is compared with the design value predicted by means of a procedure based on limit analysis following fib Model Code 2010. The results show that the method proposed in fib Model Code 2010 using the characteristic values and the classification is reliable. Even if the tests are affected by a significant standard deviation and the two experimental campaigns with three-point bending tests give a significant difference between class “5c” and class “3e”, the structural test results in a loadbearing capacity that is always larger than the predicted one, which considers a safety coefficient for the material &ggr;F = 1.5.

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