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Schoch, Torsten The M1 energy-plus masonry house / Das M1 Energieeffizienzhaus Plus Mauerwerk 3/2014 118-138 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Masonry construction - the dominant construction style for new residential buildings in Germany - can and must demonstrate its sustainability in terms of energy-efficiency. The M1 energy-plus masonry house is a pilot project that provides the first practical demonstration of how the benefits of masonry construction - such as its loadbearing capacity, fire safety and sound insulation - can be combined with current and anticipated energy-efficiency standards. A compound blockwork system with different bulk densities and strength classes has been used here for the first time, combining all the advantages of high thermal insulation and heat storage in a monolithic construction (YTONG Energy ). With simple, well-thought-out design details and carefully matched technical construction equipment, masonry energy-plus houses are no longer just a vision. The main focus of the M1 project is to develop a cost-efficient and saleable product which opens up new opportunities for consumers, designers and developers alike.

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Graubner, Carl-Alexander; Pohl, Sebastian Masonry - a sustainable building material / Mauerwerk - ein nachhaltiges Baumaterial Mauerwerk 3/2014 139-150 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

The construction and real estate industry in general and residential buildings in particular are essential pillars of the national sustainability strategy in Germany and extremely important for resilient socio-economic development. By performing life-cycle examinations of different building types, the Institute for Concrete and Masonry Structures at Darmstadt University of Technology has analysed the sustainability characteristics of residential masonry buildings with regard to common German sustainability certification systems. This paper gives an overview of the key findings of the examinations. It is a condensed version of the authors’ article for the 9th International Masonry Conference 2014 in Portugal [1] and at the same time a preview of a forthcoming paper in this journal (Vol. 18, No. 5).

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Brameshuber, Wolfgang; Saenger, Dorothea; Winkels, Bernd Recent developments in masonry construction / Neuere Entwicklungen im Mauerwerkbau Mauerwerk 3/2014 151-163 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Thanks to innovative ideas, it has been possible in recent years to advance the development of masonry construction. In response to the stricter requirements for the thermal insulation of buildings, the thermal insulation properties of masonry are continually being improved. Larger masonry units, improved mortar application techniques and prefabricated wall elements all make it possible to improve the efficiency of masonry construction and counteract the increase in labour costs. In parallel to the development of the material, the behaviour of the built masonry and its components when subjected to load is analysed in ever greater detail, in many cases using numerical models. The objective is a better understanding of the load-bearing behaviour of masonry in order to be able to use its various components more efficiently and hence to save material.

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Lehmden, Alexander Assessment of Dryfix masonry adhesive in terms of building physics compared to conventional bonding / Betrachtung der bauphysikalischen Gleichwertigkeit des Dryfix-Planziegel-Klebers Mauerwerk 3/2014 164-168 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Dryfix masonry adhesive is celebrating its 10-year anniversary in 2014. The Dryfix system has been introduced to and approved in ten European countries: Austria, Germany, France, Poland, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Every year, 25.000 housing units throughout Europe are built with Dryfix.
In addition to the mechanical properties of the polyurethane adhesive, the properties of building physics such as thermal insulation, fire resistance and sound insulation were investigated in connection with brick masonry. On the basis of sound and fire tests with brick masonry walls, it was possible to demonstrate that the material is equivalent to conventional materials. In addition, the thermal insulation of brick masonry is improved because of the joint-less bond of the blocks and the omission of the mortar joint which acts as a thermal bridge. This report is intended to summarise the status of the building physics assessment and optimisation achieved in order to provide secure data for the practical application of Dryfix masonry adhesive.

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Schoch, Torsten; Pallesen, Niels Jorgen The clever compound solution - the Ytong Energy+ / Die clevere Compound Lösung - der Ytong Energy+ Mauerwerk 3/2014 169-175 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

The development of EU regulations dealing with energy conservation will sooner or later lead to changes in all member states - usually involving stricter insulation targets. In all markets traditionally dominated by solid construction methods, this development may make it harder for the monolithic construction method to retain its market share, because both the physical and commercial limitations - to a certain extent - appear insurmountable. The obvious solution seems to be to resort to thicker insulation material. But there are other alternatives. One of them has been developed initially specifically for the Scandinavian market where the climate has traditionally dictated tough thermal insulation requirements. In Denmark for example, U-values of 0.15 W/(m²K) are considered standard today. With conventional thermal conductivity, this U-value presents a challenge even when using autoclaved aerated concrete if one wants to retain familiar, commercially viable wall dimensions. But there are other possibilities: the compound solution offered by the Ytong Energy+ block.

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Graubner, Carl-Alexander; Schmitt , Michael; Förster, Valentin Design tables for URM / Hilfsmittel für die praxisnahe Bemessung von unbewehrtem Mauerwerk Mauerwerk 3/2014 176-187 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Due to the coming introduction of Eurocode 6 (DIN EN 1996) in Germany many structural engineers ask for design assistances in order to apply the regulations and to accomplish the calculations in a cost-effective manner. At the same time however, such design tables must result in efficient solutions with respect to the materials used because masonry has to compete with other building materials. This article adresses this issue. Design tables to determine the load bearing capacity using the very simplified and simplified calculation methods in accordance with DIN EN 1996-3/NA are presented. Additionally diagrams for assessing the required minimum load on external walls exposed to wind loads and for determining the size of basement walls subjected to lateral earth pressure are given. This leads to the conclusion that, in almost all practical cases, it is possible to determine the cross-section resistance of unreinforced masonry in accordance with Eurocode 6 quickly and effectively while still making the best possible use of the materials employed.

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Gellert, Christoph; Butenweg, Christoph Seismic analysis of masonry structures in German earthquake zones according to DIN EN 1998-1 / Erdbebenbemessung von Mauerwerksbauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten nach DIN EN 1998-1 Mauerwerk 3/2014 188-196 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

The earthquakes in Albstadt in 1978 (magnitude 5.7), Roermond in 1992 (magnitude 5.9), and Waldkirch in 2004 (magnitude 5.1) have made it clear that earthquake-resistant design of ma- sonry structures is also very important in Germany. In 1981, DIN 4149 (1981) “Buildings in German earthquake areas - Design loads, analysis, and structural design of buildings” was introduced, although it only contained a few requirements for masonry structures. This standard was completely revised by the Building and Civil Engineering Standards Committee “Earthquakes; Special issues” of the German Institute for Standardization (DIN) on the basis of Eurocode 8 (2004) and was replaced by DIN 4149 (2005), which contains detailed rules for the seismic design of masonry structures. In the meantime, DIN EN 1998-1 (2010) and the national annex DIN EN 1998-1/NA (2011) became available, which were adopted by the building supervisory board after integrating the results of application tests performed and replace DIN 4149 (2005). The following article provides an overview of the seismic calculation and analysis of masonry structures according to the European codes and illustrates their application on a sample structure.

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Tomazevic, Miha Testing of small-scale models of masonry buildings on simple earthquake simulators: possibilities and limits / Tests mit kleinformatigen Modellen von Mauerwerksgebäuden auf einfachen Erdbebensimulatoren: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen Mauerwerk 3/2014 197-205 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Experience regarding the testing of models of masonry buildings on simple shaking tables is discussed. It is stressed that because scale effects affect some phenomena and influence the dynamic response, only overall seismic behaviour of structural systems can be studied by testing reduced size models, and not structural details. The basic principles of physical modelling are explained and options for preparing different types of models presented. The test facility, needed for simulation of earthquake ground motion, is described and pointers are given for the selection of simulated earthquakes. Some practical cases of model shaking table studies are also presented.

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Schermer, Detleff Hybrid testing of masonry structures subjected to seismic loading / Hybride Versuche an Mauerwerkskonstruktionen unter Erdbebenbeanspruchung Mauerwerk 3/2014 206-212 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

The combination of experiments and numeric description in a test makes it possible to realistically investigate almost any type of system subjected to dynamic loading without requiring the extremely expensive device of a shaking table. With the numeric approach it is possible to examine the behaviour of even very large and complex structures, thus reducing the experimental investigations to the essential part of the system - for example, bracing masonry walls. This test method has proved to be very helpful, particularly for the investigation of seismic loading, and it allows the synchronous examination of several force and displacement variables (horizontal, vertical, rotational). A new laboratory is presented for the investigation of full-scale building structures up to three storeys high.

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Gunkler, Erhard; Dashkhuu, Odontsetseg On the loadbearing capacity of masonry walls subjected to concentrated end strip loads / Zur Beanspruchbarkeit von Mauerwerkwänden durch Teilflächenlasten an Wandenden Mauerwerk 3/2014 213-221 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Concentrated loads in masonry walls are caused by point loads resulting from beams or columns perpendicular to the horizontal joint. In theory, locally occurring multi-axial stress conditions lead to compressive stress underneath the area subjected to the load, the numerical values of which are greater than the mono-axial compressive strength of the masonry. Load increase factors derived from this and stated in [1] and [2] were last determined in Germany approx. 30 years ago [3] using standard test specimens (in accordance with [4]) and not using walls. The types of masonry investigated at the time were made up of types and sizes of masonry units and of types of mortar and joint configurations that were common at the time; this however no longer appears current. The loadbearing capacity of the wall was completely ignored. In view of current structural design methods based on EC 6 [5] where applied and internal force variables in building elements are compared, this remains unsatisfactory.
For this reason, experimental and theoretical investigations of partially loaded walls (l/h/t = 1.875/1.75/0.115 m) made of aerated concrete and brick masonry with thin-layer mortar were carried out at the Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied Sciences. In addition to the type of masonry unit, the detail of the perpendicular joint was varied (with mortar (v) versus without mortar (uv)). Below follows a report on the result of these investigations.

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Kubica , Jan; Mojsilovic´, Neboj a Reinforced masonry in Europe - Working strategy for the preparation of the State of the Art Report / Bewehrtes Mauerwerk in Europa - Arbeitsstrategie für die Erstellung des State-of-the-Art-Reports Mauerwerk 3/2014 222-228 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

The behaviour of reinforced masonry structures, especially when reinforcement is provided to enhance the mechanical properties, i.e. different strength types or resistance of masonry, is still not completely investigated or thoroughly understood. A significant lack of knowledge can be observed in many areas, especially in Europe. As a result of this situation, the Commission W023 - Wall Structures of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) set up a Working Group (WG5) - Reinforced and Prestressed Masonry a few years ago, of which the authors are convenors. The first task of the WG5 is to produce a State of the Art document covering reinforced masonry applications in order to identify topics for future research and development. This document will serve as a contribution for the revision of European Structural Masonry Code EN 1996-1-1:2005 (Eurocode 6) [1], which is planned to be done between 2015 and 2018. It was agreed at the last W023 Commission Meeting held in Eindhoven in October 2013 that the preparation of the State of the Art document should cover the specific experience and problems connected with reinforced and prestressed masonry structures under static and dynamic/seismic loading, also outside Europe. The process of preparing such a report is now underway and the following article describes the planned scope of the document.

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Jäger, Wolfram; Pech, Anton Background of the values for compressive strength of masonry acc. to EC 6 - evaluation of data / Hintergrund der Druckfestigkeitswerte für Mauerwerk im Eurocode 6 - Datenauswertung Mauerwerk 3/2014 229-238 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

In accordance with EN 1996-1-1 [1] the compressive strength of masonry is determined with the help of power functions. For this purpose, the standard includes values in Table 3.3 which were established by evaluating available test values in 2001/2002. In this article the theoretical background for the evaluation of the database is explained and a practical procedure is introduced which was applied at the time in order to be able to list values in EN 1996-1-1.
This article does not discuss individual combinations of masonry units and mortar. It only presents in summary the methodology and the underlying mathematical basis. The purpose of this contribution is to provide the countries in need of specific evaluations support for the anticipated update and adaptation of EC 6.

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Straube, Berit; Schoch, Torsten The durability of autoclaved aerated concrete / Dauerhaftigkeit von Porenbeton Mauerwerk 3/2014 239-245 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

In order to be able to better assess the durability of autoclaved aerated concrete, a number of research activities have been carried out in the past. As a result of these studies, a new requirement was defined for autoclaved aerated concrete. The overall shrinkage rate, tested according to DIN EN 680, must be smaller than 0.4 mm/m. This article describes and discusses contributing factors and the background to this new requirement.

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Venter, Werner Fibre reinforcement material in solid construction / Faserverbundbewehrung im Massivbau Mauerwerk 3/2014 246-257 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Glass-fibre reinforcement is enjoying increasing popularity in solid construction and masonry buildings. The first approvals for the material have been obtained in Europe. It is possible to carry out the structural design of components with glass-fibre reinforcement based on EC 2 and EC 6 in combination with the fib Technical Bulletin.
The rapid development of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRPs) offers completely new alternatives to conventional reinforcement steel which are significantly more durable, do not have any metal properties and feature a significantly better energy footprint.

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Schlundt, Andreas; Meyer, Udo Structural design of masonry for fire resistance according to Eurocode 6 / Brandschutzbemessung von Mauerwerk nach Eurocode 6 Mauerwerk 3/2014 258-266 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Following the publication of the National Annex to Eurocode 6 Part 1-2 in June 2013, all documents are now available for the structural fire design of masonry in accordance with the Eurocode. As Eurocode 6 has been declared of equivalent value by the Expert Commission for Construction Technology, it is now ready to be applied in Germany. In spite of the changeover to the European concept, including the introduction of newly defined fire resistance classes, the Eurocode 6 tables for determining the duration of fire resistance as a function of the wall thickness are nearly unchanged compared to the familiar values in DIN 4102-4. The few changes and adaptations to the current state of technology are discussed here and explained. The emphasis of the new approach is that the changed vertical loadbearing capacities - in accordance with EN 1996 - and their effect on fire resistance are taken into account.

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Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica (BMA) / Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica (BMA) Mauerwerk 3/2014 267-268 Aktuell

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Termine: Mauerwerk 3/4/2014 Mauerwerk 3/2014 268 Termine

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Inhalt: Stahlbau 3/2014 Stahlbau 3/2014 Inhalt

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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Ernst & Sohn (Hrsg.) Sonderheft: Erneuerbare Energien Stahlbau 3/2014 1-80 Sonderheft

Kurzfassung

Bauingenieure sorgen für wirtschaftliche und umweltverträgliche Lösungen bei der Analyse und beim Bau von Windenergieanlagen. Im von Professor Ummenhofer editierten Sonderheft der Zeitschrift STAHLBAU finden Sie Resultate aus F+E im Bereich der Gründung und Tragstrukturen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen für Ihre Ingenieurpraxis verständlich aufbereitet. Dabei stehen Monopiles der nächsten Generation im Fokus, die die Kosten von Gründungen deutlich reduzieren.

Begegnen Sie den technologischen Herausforderungen der Energiewende mit dem Ingenieurwissen von STAHLBAU Spezial 2014.

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Schäfer, Markus; Widong, Marc; Klein, Claude Parking Belval-Université - ein P&R-Parkhaus, das die Grenzen in Europa neu definiert Stahlbau 3/2014 149-157 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Die Verkehrspolitik in Luxemburg sieht das Erstellen eines möglichst dichten Netzes an öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln vor. Autofahrer, vor allem die Vielzahl der Grenzgänger aus dem angrenzenden Ausland, sollen bereits grenznah auf die Bahn umsteigen, um somit das Straßennetz über die Grenzen von Luxemburg hinaus zu entlasten. Im Jahr 2013 wurde mit der Eröffnung das Parkhauses Belval-Université das erste einer Reihe geplanter Park

Parking Belval-Université - A Park and Rail project is defining new boarders in Europe.
Transport policy in Luxembourg provides the realization of a dense network of public transport. Motorists, especially the large number of commuters from the neighbor countries, should already change close to the borders to public traffic - especially to train. By that it is possible to relieve the national highways and also those in bordering regions. With the start into service of the new multi-storey car park Belval-Université in 2013, the first of a series of planned Park

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Münch, Ingo Optimierung gevouteter Rahmen im Stahlhallenbau Stahlbau 3/2014 158-164 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Einfeldrahmen in Stahlbauweise finden weite Verbreitung beim Bau von Industrie- und Lagerhallen mit moderater Spannweite. Mit Ausnahme des Dreigelenkrahmens sind die Schnittgrößen in Haupttragrichtung statisch unbestimmt und hängen somit von den Steifigkeiten der Bauteile ab. Bei der Bemessung von Stützen- und Riegelprofilen tritt dieser nichtlineare Effekt in Erscheinung und koppelt sich zudem an die Anordnung von Vouten im Eckbereich des Rahmens. Die Optimierung der Bauteile mit Hilfe einer Evolutionsstrategie offenbart, dass es aus praktischer Sicht einen Spielraum gibt, welcher favorisierte Lösungen mit adäquatem Konstruktionsgewicht enthält. Die Varianten in diesem Spielraum unterscheiden sich durch die Ausprägung der Voute, wobei sich statische und geometrische Randbedingungen bemerkbar machen. Eine Studie bespricht den Einfluss des Rahmenabstands, der Dachneigung und der gelenkigen bzw. eingespannten Lagerung der Stützen auf die optimale Wahl der Vouten.

Optimization of haunched steel hall frames.
Single-span frame structures are widespread to build storage and industrial buildings of moderate span width. Except three-hinged frames the stress resultants in the principal load direction are statically indeterminate and thus, depend onto the stiffness of all structural members of the frame. For the dimensioning of profiles this nonlinear effect appears and couples furthermore to the design of haunches in the corners of the frame. Using an evolution algorithm to optimize the components of the structure reveals some room to find favor solutions with adequate design weight from a practical point of view. Variants differ in forming the haunches within this scope and boundary conditions become noticeable. Studies discuss the influence of frame spacing, roof slope as well as support conditions onto the optimal design auf haunches.

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Hamburgs Tanzende Türme mit immobilienmanager.AWARD ausgezeichnet Stahlbau 3/2014 164 Aktuell

Kurzfassung

Keine Kurzfassung verfügbar.

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May, Marc; Ruppert, Matthias; Seeßelberg, Christoph Zur wirtschaftlichen Bemessung von optimierten Walzprofil-Kranbahnträgern für Laufkrane nach Eurocode Stahlbau 3/2014 165-173 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Eine wirtschaftliche Standardanwendung von Walzprofilen sind Kranbahnträger für Laufkrane. In der bisherigen Bemessungspraxis wurden und werden überwiegend HE-Profile in der Stahlgüte S235 eingesetzt, welche eine zweckmäßige Lösung für Kranbahnträger kurzer bis mittlerer Spannweiten bei kleinen bis mittleren Radlasten darstellen. Sowohl für größere Spannweiten als auch für größere Radlasten und die Kombination aus beiden kommen HE-Profile an ihre Grenzen. Im folgenden Beitrag wird der Einsatz von HD- und HL-Walzprofilen aus S355 für Kranbahnträger untersucht und die Vorteile dieser weniger bekannten Profilreihen dargestellt.

On the economic design of optimized rolled section runway beams for top mounted overhead cranes.
Crane runway beams are an economic standard application of hot rolled sections. In today’s design practice HE sections in grade S235 are commonly used, which represents a suitable solution for crane runway beams of short to intermediate spans and small to medium wheel loads. For bigger spans as well as for higher wheel loads and the combination of both HE sections arrive to their limits. In the following article the application of HD and HL rolled-sections in grade S355 for crane runway beams are examined and the advantages of this less known section ranges are presented.
Marc May
Matthias Ruppert
Christoph Seeßelberg

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Mensinger, Martin; Möller, Heidrun Einfluss von Querkraftanschlüssen auf das Biegedrillknicken von Einfeldträgern - Teil 2: Aufbereitung für die Praxis Stahlbau 3/2014 174-185 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Querkraftanschlüsse stellen eine häufig verwendete oberkantenbündige Verbindungsmöglichkeit eines Nebenträgers an einen Hauptträger dar. Hierbei zeichnen sich insbesondere lange Fahnenblechanschlüsse durch ihre Vorteile in der Montage aus. Ausgeklinkte Träger mit Doppelwinkel- oder Fahnenblechanschlüssen müssen aufgrund der Ausklinkung des Nebenträgers umständlich zwischen die Hauptträger eingeschwenkt werden, stellen aber nichts desto trotz eine gerne verwendete Anschlussform mit großer Tradition dar. Allen Varianten gemein ist die Tatsache, dass sie kein Gabellager bilden, sondern ein torsionsweiches Auflager. Damit sind die üblichen Berechnungsmöglichkeiten zur Ermittlung des idealen Biegedrillknickmomentes Mcr nicht anwendbar. Um für Träger mit diesen Anschlüssen Mcr ermitteln zu können und damit die Grundlage für einen normkonformen Nachweis zu legen, bedurfte es einiger eingehender Untersuchungen. Im Rahmen des AiF-Forschungsvorhabens 16872 N wurden diese Untersuchungen am Lehrstuhl für Metallbau der Technischen Universität München durchgeführt. Im folgenden Beitrag wird auf die Erkenntnisse der Parameterstudie, das Ersatzmodell zur Ermittlung von Mcr sowie auf die weiteren Hilfsmittel, aufbereitet für die Praxis, eingegangen (s. auch Teil 1 [9]).

Influence of hinged connections on the lateral-torsional buckling of single-span beams - Part 2: Practical application.
Hinged connections are an often used type of connection between secondary and primary beam with flushed upper flanges. A very economic type of connection in terms of manufacturing and erection are long fin-plates. Unfortunately they are no fork bearing, therefore the usual formula for the elastic critical moment Mcr for beams cannot be used. To design a beam according to DIN EN 1993-1-1 it is necessary to know the actual stiffness of such connections to be able to consider it in the calculation of Mcr. This is also the case for other typical hinged connections like notched beams with either fin-plate or double angle connection. This problem of otherwise very economic connections is the reason for taking a closer look at their influence on the lateral-torsional buckling in the research project AiF-No. 16872 N at the Lehrstuhl für Metallbau (chair of metal structures) der Technischen Universität München. The following second part of the paper deals with the results of the parametric study, the substitute model to calculate Mcr and the additional aids for practical use (for part 1 of the paper see [9]).

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Chen, Weizhen; Xie, Zhenlin; Yan, Bochong Research on the general method for extrapolating traffic load effects for highway bridges Stahlbau 3/2014 186-198 Fachthemen

Kurzfassung

Accurate knowledge of real traffic load levels is one of the prerequisites for structural safety assessments, and the common method used to extrapolate load effects depends on the analysis of effect crossing rate distribution according to Rice’s Theory. But as proved by the analysis made in this paper from three perspectives (theoretical basis of the method, determination of fitting starting class interval and discreteness of extrapolated effects), the method is flawed in at least three respects: obvious deviation between the presumption of Rice's Theory and the real distribution of crossing rate, narrow application range (extremely high traffic density) and unreliability in extrapolation of effects. Besides, the method only estimates the effects of the return period, without a reliability analysis of randomness in sampling and thus an effective estimation of effect range containing true values. Therefore, this paper, after analysing the relation between return period and extreme value distribution of load effects, as well as the occurrence rule for return period effects, proposes a general method for extrapolating traffic load effects on highway bridges. The general method, with the characteristic of high utilization of sample data in effect extrapolation from crossing rate distribution, is wide in its scope of application; it can be used for traffic flows with different densities and influence lines with different forms and lengths, and provides a confidence interval for estimated effect values. The method thus represents a significant improvement to the reliability of extrapolating effects for different return periods.

Forschungen zur allgemeinen Methode der Extrapolation von Verkehrslastwirkungen auf AutobahnbrüKen.
Eine genaue Kenntnis des realen Verkehrslastniveaus ist eine der Voraussetzungen einer bautechnischen Sicherheitsbewertung. Die verbreitete Methode zur Extrapolation von Lasteinflüssen hängt ab von der Analyse der Effekt-Durchgangsraten-Verteilung entsprechend der Theorie von Rice. Diese Methode hat Schwächen in mindestens drei Bereichen: in ihren theoretischen Grundlagen, der Bestimmung einer passenden Start-Klassenweite sowie der Diskretheit extrapolierter Effekte. Dies wird durch die Betrachtungen im vorliegenden Beitrag gezeigt. Die Theorie von Rice weicht offensichtlich von den meisten realen Verteilungen der Durchgangsrate ab, hat einen engen Anwendungsbereich (extrem hohe Verkehrsdichte) und ist unzuverlässig bei der Extrapolation von Effekten. Zudem werden durch die Methode Auswirkungen der Wiederholungsperiode nur geschätzt: eine Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse zur Wahllosigkeit der Stichproben fehlt, und somit fehlt auch eine brauchbare Einschätzung des Wirkungsbereichs, der den wahren Wert enthält. Daher schlägt der vorliegende Beitrag eine allgemeine Methode zur Extrapolation von Verkehrslasteinflüssen auf Autobahnbrücken vor. Grundlagen sind die Analyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen Wiederholungsperiode und Extremwertverteilung der Lasteinflüsse sowie die Erscheinung einer Regel über die Effekte der Wiederholungsperiode. Ein Charakteristikum dieser allgemeinen Methode ist die starke Nutzung von Stichproben bei der Extrapolation von Effekten aus der Durchgangsraten-Verteilung. Die allgemeine Methode hat einen breiten Anwendungsbereich für verschiedene Verkehrsflussdichten und für Wirklinien verschiedener Formen und Längen. Sie liefert weiterhin einen Vertrauensbereich für geschätzte Effektwerte und somit eine deutlich höhere Zuverlässigkeit der Extrapolation von Effekten für verschiedene Wiederholungsperioden.

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